The IMF Working Papers series is designed to make IMF staff research available to a wide audience. Almost 300 Working Papers are released each year, covering a wide range of theoretical and analytical topics, including balance of payments, monetary and fiscal issues, global liquidity, and national and international economic developments.
This paper presents a comparative analysis of the macroeconomic adjustment in Chile,
Colombia, and Peru to commodity terms-of-trade shocks. The study is done in two steps:
(i) an analysis of the impulse responses of key macroeconomic variables to terms-of-trade
shocks and (ii) an event study of the adjustment to the recent decline in commodity prices.
The experiences of these countries highlight the importance of flexible exchange rates to
help with the adjustment to lower commodity prices, and staying vigilant in addressing
depreciation pressures on inflation through tightening monetary policies. On the fiscal front,
evidence shows that greater fiscal space, like in Chile and Peru, gives more room for
accommodating terms-of-trade shocks.