The IMF Working Papers series is designed to make IMF staff research available to a wide audience. Almost 300 Working Papers are released each year, covering a wide range of theoretical and analytical topics, including balance of payments, monetary and fiscal issues, global liquidity, and national and international economic developments.
This paper examines monetary concepts and definitions. It notes that approaches to monetary analysis, and the concept of money itself, have been undergoing substantial change in many countries due in large part to recent innovation, which has affected financial markets, financial instruments, and financial institutions. As a result, many countries increasingly tend to focus on multiple creators and instruments of money as opposed to just currency and transferable demand deposits. This fact is borne out by the paper’s survey of national practices in the selection and grouping of instruments in money measures. The paper concludes that the emerging trend towards broader concepts of money implies the need for some rethinking of traditional notion of money measures.