The IMF Working Papers series is designed to make IMF staff research available to a wide audience. Almost 300 Working Papers are released each year, covering a wide range of theoretical and analytical topics, including balance of payments, monetary and fiscal issues, global liquidity, and national and international economic developments.
This paper examines the capital structure of listed firms in Poland, using firm-level panel data to study the determinants of leverage. Polish firms had extremely low leverage levels, suggesting a growing stock market and a potential reluctance of banks to grant loans to old and risky firms. The empirical exercise finds that large, new, foreign-owned firms, and firms with strong cash positions have higher levels of leverage. Finally, shareholder concentration has a neutral or even a beneficial influence on firm leverage. The nature of ownership may be primarily responsible for this finding.