The IMF Working Papers series is designed to make IMF staff research available to a wide audience. With nearly 300 released each year, working papers cover a wide range of theoretical and analytical topics, including balance of payments, monetary and fiscal issues, global liquidity, and national and international economic developments.
Since the early 1980s, well over 100 countries have experienced systemic bank insolvencies. An important innovation among the resulting policies for reestablishing bank soundness has been the reliance on market-based instruments and policies, in contrast to the largely non-market-oriented approach taken in the 1930s during the last big wave of banking crises. This paper surveys and assesses market-based policy instruments employed to overcome systemic bank problems. Considerations regarding the design and mix of instruments as well as cost-sharing arrangements are shown to be key aspects of effective bank restructuring. Selected country examples are used to illustrate best practices.