The IMF Working Papers series is designed to make IMF staff research available to a wide audience. Almost 300 Working Papers are released each year, covering a wide range of theoretical and analytical topics, including balance of payments, monetary and fiscal issues, global liquidity, and national and international economic developments.
The paper examines the experiences of countries in defining monetary aggregates, particularly those countries that have undertaken substantial redefinitions. It finds that both the functional and empirical approaches are important; and that monetary definitions tend to be dynamic in nature, becoming prone to revisions whenever the current definition no longer satisfies both criteria. While countries may adhere to both approaches, monetary definitions may still vary across countries, reflecting specific institutional settings and the requirements of the empirical approach. This finding supports the approach in the IMF's Monetary and Financial Statistics Manual of not prescribing specific definitions of broad money.