The IMF Working Papers series is designed to make IMF staff research available to a wide audience. Almost 300 Working Papers are released each year, covering a wide range of theoretical and analytical topics, including balance of payments, monetary and fiscal issues, global liquidity, and national and international economic developments.
This paper constructs a general equilibrium model with monopolistically competitive firms and endogenous markups where government spending consists of both consumption and investment goods. It is shown that when markups are countercyclical, increases in the share of investment goods in aggregate government expenditure entail a trade-off between greater long- run efficiency and higher short-run volatility. Estimates based on the model, calibrated to the postwar U.S. economy, show that the effects on output, employment, and welfare can be significant