Maximiliano Appendino, Olga Bespalova, Ms. Rina Bhattacharya, Jean François Clevy, Ms. Nan Geng, Mr. Takuji Komatsuzaki, Justin Lesniak, Weicheng Lian, Ms. Sandra Marcelino, Mr. Mauricio Villafuerte, and Mr. Yorbol Yakhshilikov
After providing a general overview of the nature, pros, and cons of crypto assets and CBDCs, this paper focuses on documenting their recent experience in LAC. The region records a high interest in unbacked crypto assets and stablecoins and its authorities’ policy responses have varied substantially, ranging from the introduction of Bitcoin as legal tender in El Salvador to their prohibition in many other countries worried about their impact on financial stability, currency/asset substitution, tax evasion, corruption, and money laundering. This paper also describes briefly the results of a survey on CBDCs’ introduction plans and crypto assets regulation. Finally, this paper presents some general lessons and policy recommendations for the region on the regulation of cypto assets, digital currencies and cross-border payments, and on the potential introduction of CBDCs.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
Haiti is faced with many difficulties, which have been worsened by higher food and fuel prices stemming from Russia’s war in Ukraine. Because of this global shock and a deterioration of the domestic security situation, the economy has become even more fragile, and the macroeconomic situation and outlook are more challenging than in June 2022, when the Staff Monitored Program was approved by IMF Management. In line with global trends, growth has been weaker than expected and inflation higher. Despite the more difficult macroeconomic situation and downside risks, recent data and progress on structural reforms suggest that the authorities are making meaningful efforts to ease the country’s multiple challenges.