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International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This 2019 Article IV Consultation focuses on Curaçao and Sint Maarten’s near and medium-term challenges and policy priorities and was prepared before coronavirus disease 2019 became a global pandemic and resulted in unprecedented strains in global trade, commodity and financial markets. The fiscal position in Curaçao improved in the past two years, in part due to implemented fiscal measures. Both Curaçao and Sint Maarten would benefit from introducing a Fiscal Responsibility Framework. It could incorporate a central government debt ratio as a long-term anchor and operational rules calibrated to meet it. The report suggests that risks in the financial sector need to be addressed as a matter of priority. The authorities should develop a strategy for addressing financial sector vulnerabilities with the objective of preserving financial stability while minimizing fiscal costs. Significant strengthening of supervision and a complete overhaul of the bank resolution framework are also urgently needed. An across-the board improvement in the governance framework should be a key priority in both countries. Vulnerabilities in the financial system point to the need to strengthen governance in the financial sector.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
Weak growth and underlying structural vulnerabilities persist in both Curaçao and Sint Maarten. Worsened macroeconomic conditions—reflecting the spillovers from one of Curaçao’s largest trading partners and the devastation from Hurricanes Irma and Maria in Sint Maarten—make the need for policy adjustment and structural reforms aimed at ensuring fiscal sustainability, enhancing competitiveness, strengthening investor confidence, and developing capacity more urgent.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights that the fiscal situation in Curaçao and Sint Maarten remains relatively stable, following the debt relief in 2010, but progress on necessary fiscal and structural reforms has been slow. Curaçao experienced modest growth in 2015 of 0.1 percent, reflecting a turnaround from the contraction of 1.1 percent in 2014. The economy of Sint Maarten expanded by 0.5 percent in 2015, a slowdown compared with the 1.5 percent recorded in 2014. Real GDP growth in 2016 is expected to reach 0.5 percent in Curaçao and 0.7 percent in Sint Maarten. Over the medium term, growth is expected to pick up moderately to 0.9 percent and 1.3 percent for Curaçao and Sint Maarten, respectively.
International Monetary Fund
The two newly autonomous countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands face substantial challenges. Growth has been low, and unemployment high. The current account deficit has widened to worrisome levels, increasing the vulnerability of the peg to the U.S. dollar and stimulating calls for dollarizing or dissolving the currency union. A substantial adjustment is needed to bring the underlying current account deficit to historically sustainable levels over the medium term. This could be facilitated by measures to restrain credit growth, supported by fiscal consolidation.
International Monetary Fund
The Netherlands has a long-standing legal framework concerning Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism preventive measures, which dates back to 1993. The legal framework for Customer Due Diligence is generally adequate; however, a number of provisions are problematic. The Dutch system of preventive measures emphasizes the risk-based approach, complemented by a principles-based approach. The principles-based approach should be better supported with guidance for financial institutions. Although most elements of the Suspicious Transaction Report reporting requirements are in place, the reporting regime has one minor legal shortcoming and raises effectiveness concerns.
International Monetary Fund
The 2008 Article IV Consultation analyzes the promise of fiscal discipline and debt relief that has boosted investor confidence and growth in the Kingdom of the Netherlands—Netherlands Antilles. Although exports moderated temporarily, tourism was a bright spot owing to improvements in competitiveness as a result of infrastructure investments, and cost controls from immigration. Executive Directors encouraged the authorities to take the opportunity provided by the large debt relief from the Netherlands government under the dissolution agreement to set the budget and the economy on a more sustainable footing.
International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The IMF, in cooperation with other concerned organizations, set up a working party to investigate and improve the statistical procedures being used, and to recommend compilation procedures that would make nations' balance of payments statistics more consistent with one another. In addition to detailed explanations of its findings and recommendations, the Report contains extensive statistical appendices and 109 tables.

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
This paper constructs a general-equilibrium model of an open economy and to develop a computational technique for deriving a market-clearing solution to the model. The model will allow for disaggregated commodities, taxes, and tariffs, so that the individual parameter changes that are often considered by a government may be examined. The model includes a government that is an active participant in the economy as a producer of public goods and that may influence the rate of savings by its actions. Private firms are assumed to have linear technologies in intermediate and final goods, but have the possibility for substitution among the scarce factors that enter their value added, and are assumed to maximize profits at given market prices subject to taxes on profits, defined as returns to capital. It is the normal procedure in work on general-equilibrium models to deal separately with the supply and demand sides of the economy in question, and to then construct excess demand functions.
International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
This paper presents a study on economic development with stability in India. While the Five-Year Plan occupies the central position as the means through which the Government of India proposes to deal with the basic economic problem, it must be implemented by many specific economic and social measures. It is of the utmost importance that the measures taken in various fields should not only contribute to the fulfilment of the Five-Year Plan but that they should form part of a consistent economic and social policy. Apart from the change in total foreign investment, the composition of foreign investment in India now includes a larger proportion of direct and a smaller proportion of fixed interest obligations than before the war. While India's official sterling debt has been practically wiped out, the Government of India has incurred new obligations in dollars. If India could meet its pre-war obligations on foreign investment without any great strain on its balance of payments, it should be able to meet future obligations, resulting from any new debts, provided its balance of payments position in the future is not materially worse than in the past.