Housing market developments are in the spotlight in Europe. Over-stretched valuations amid tightening financial conditions and a cost-of-living crisis have increased risks of a sustained downturn and exposed challenging trade-offs for macroprudential policy between ensuring financial system resilience and smoothing the macro-financial cycle. Against this backdrop, this paper provides detailed considerations regarding how to (re)set macroprudential policy tools in response to housing-related systemic risk in Europe, providing design solutions to avoid unintended consequences during a tightening phase, and navigating the trade-offs between managing the build-up of vulnerabilities and the macro-financial cycle in a downturn. It also proposes a novel framework to measure the effectiveness of tools and avoid overlaps by quantifying the risks addressed by different macroprudential instruments. Finally, it introduces a taxonomy allowing to assess a country’s macroprudential stance and whether adjustments to current policy settings are warranted—such as the relaxation of capital-based tools and possibly some borrower-based measures in the event of a more severe downturn.
This report presents the estimates of tax gaps for corporate income tax (CIT) for non-financial corporations in Slovenia by applying the methodology of the IMF’s RA-GAP (Revenue Administration – Gap Analysis Program). This work is being undertaken under the context of the larger project designed to strengthen the administration of corporate income tax (CIT) by the Slovenian Financial Administration (SFA). Providing support towards building the capacity of the SFA to estimate and analyze the CIT gap will assist in achieving the overall goals of the project to: (i) strengthen core tax administration functions, and (ii) strengthen revenue administration, management, and governance arrangements.
Slovenia recovered quickly from the pandemic but Russia’s war in Ukraine is posing new challenges, especially the negative terms of trade shock. A center-left government took office in June, with a broad social and green reform agenda.