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Niki Kalavrezou and Hui Jin
We review Greek public sector healthcare policies and health-related outcomes since 2010.We find that excess spending was successfully curtailed, elements of the institutional framework were modernized, and health outcomes have been relatively favorable. However, especially prior to Covid-19, public healthcare spending had been compressed to potentially unsustainable levels, with widening inequalities and large unmet needs, especially among the poor. Higher public spending and advancing structural healthcare reforms are needed to improve the efficiency and equity of the Greek healthcare system, including strengthening primary healthcare, reducing out-of-pocket payments, and eliminating remaining insurance gaps.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The HKFE Clearing Corporation Limited (HKCC) observes the CPSS/IOSCO Principles for Financial Market Infrastructures (PFMI). It has a sound, coherent and transparent legal basis. As an integral part of the Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited (HKEX Group), the HKCC has a comprehensive and adequate risk management framework to address financial, business, and operational risks. Participant assets as well as HKCC’s collaterals are safely kept in several banks and regulated central securities depositories. The credit and liquidity risks are minimized by having a robust risk management framework, including rigorous stress testing methodology and access to qualifying liquid resources. Furthermore, the HKCC has clear rules and procedures to handle and manage a participant’s default procedures. Moreover, the HKCC has established risk management framework to handle operational risk, including cyber risk, and business continuity management that addresses events posing significant risk of operational disruption.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper reviews quantitative tools of financial stability assessments under the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP). A key focus of FSAPs is on methodologies to gauge risks on a system-wide level and propose mitigating measures. Therefore, the paper concentrates on the main elements of the FSAP’s macroprudential stress testing framework:(i) the interaction among solvency, liquidity, and contagion risks in the banking sector, (ii) the assessment of the health of nonbank financial institutions (NBFIs), their interactions with banks and their impact on financial markets, (iii) the assessment of the health of nonfinancial sectors and their links to the financial sector, and (iv) macroprudential policy analysis. The paper also reviews recent improvements in microprudential bank solvency stress testing—an important foundation for the macroprudential stress testing framework—and discusses new tools for emerging risks (climate change, fintech, and cyber).
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
The economic impact of the pandemic has been much milder than initially foreseen, still the outlook remains challenging. The economy, dominated by financial services, adapted quickly to telework and benefited from unprecedented policy support, both domestically and globally. Uncertainty is unusually high, dominated by the virus dynamics in the short term, with downside risks relating to a sharp rise in global risk premia, deglobalization trends, and changes in international taxation.