Business and Economics > Natural Resource Extraction

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Sebastian Beer
Profit shifting remains a key concern in international tax system debate, but discussions are largely based on aggregate estimates, with less attention paid to individual sectors. Drawing on a novel dataset, we quantify tax avoidance risks in the extractive industries, a sector which is revenue critical for many developing economies. We find that a one percentage point increase in the domestic corporate tax rate has historically reduced sectoral profits by slightly over 3 percent; and the response tends to be more pronounced among mining than among hydrocarbon firms. There is only weak evidence transfer pricing rules contain tax minimization efforts of MNEs in our sample, but interest limitation rules (e.g., thin capitalization or earnings based rules) do reduce the observable extent of profit shifting. Our findings highlight the challenge of taxing income in the natural resource sector and suggest how fiscal regime design might be strengthened.
International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.
The fourth and last technical assistance (TA) mission for the benefit of Guinea, under the project on improving external sector statistics (ESS) in 17 Francophone countries of West and Central Africa, funded by the Japanese government and administered by the IMF, took place in Conakry during August 26–30, 2019. The mission was hosted by the Central Bank of the Republic of Guinea (BCRG), which is the institution responsible for compiling the ESS. The main points addressed by the mission were to support (i) the process of participating in the coordinated direct investment survey (CDIS), (ii) the detailed technical work for improving the current and financial accounts, and (iii) the implementation of recommendations from previous missions.
International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.
The fourth and last technical assistance (TA) mission for the benefit of Guinea, under the project on improving external sector statistics (ESS) in 17 Francophone countries of West and Central Africa, funded by the Japanese government and administered by the IMF, took place in Conakry during August 26–30, 2019. The mission was hosted by the Central Bank of the Republic of Guinea (BCRG), which is the institution responsible for compiling the ESS. The main points addressed by the mission were to support (i) the process of participating in the coordinated direct investment survey (CDIS), (ii) the detailed technical work for improving the current and financial accounts, and (iii) the implementation of recommendations from previous missions.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo is suffering directly from the COVID-19 pandemic with 215 confirmed cases and 20 deaths as of April 9. The economic impact, chiefly through lower commodity prices, was being felt even before the first confirmed case was reported on March 10. The authorities’ policy response to the pandemic has been firm, scaling up health care spending and putting in place measures to help contain and mitigate the spread of the disease. The pandemic is also dampening domestic revenue mobilization and putting significant pressures on foreign exchange reserves.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
Real growth is expected at 5.8 percent in 2020, supported by rebounding mining production and investment-led construction activity. Legislative elections and a referendum for a new constitution will be held in March and presidential elections by end-year. Protests against the referendum are ongoing. Risks of political and social instability are high. Covid-19. The baseline scenario is based on the initial global downward revisions to growth due to the COVID-19 outbreak and assumes no outbreak in Guinea. As of March 10, 2020, there was no declared coronavirus case in Guinea. As the situation evolves, the country authorities and staff are keeping a close watch on macroeconomic developments, needed policy responses, and their impact on financing needs.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This paper presents Democratic Republic of the Congo’s (DRC) Request for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility (RCF). DRC is experiencing a severe shock as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic. The short-term economic outlook has deteriorated quickly due to the fall of minerals’ prices and the impact of needed containment and mitigation measures. The IMF’s emergency financial support under the RCF is expected to address DRC’s urgent balance of payments needs while supporting this temporary fiscal loosening. Additional assistance from other development partners is expected to close the remaining external financing gap and ease budget financing needs. The authorities’ commitment to publish monthly audits of coronavirus disease 2019 related expenditures is welcome, to ensure transparency in the use of public funding. The implementation of the policies and structural reforms to which the authorities committed under the staff-monitored program agreed in December remains key to ensuring macroeconomic stability and restoring sustained inclusive growth. These include strengthening transparency and governance in the fiscal and mining sectors, boosting revenue mobilization, maintaining financial stability, and halting central bank financing of the deficit.