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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department, International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept., and International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
The paper briefs the Executive Board on the initial considerations on CBDC. These cover a framework to guide countries’ CBDC exploration, as well as implications for monetary policy transmission, capital flow management measures, and financial inclusion.
Ashley Lannquist and Brandon Tan
Financial inclusion is a key policy objective that central banks, especially those in emerging and low-income countries, are considering for retail central bank digital currency (CBDC). If properly designed to address the barriers to financial inclusion, CBDCs have the opportunity to gain acceptance by the financially excluded for digital payments. CBDC can then serve as an entry point to the broader formal financial system. CBDC has special aspects that may benefit financial inclusion, such as being a risk-free and widely acceptable form of digital money, availability for offline payments, and potentially lower costs and greater accessibility. However, CBDC is not a panacea to financial inclusion, and additional experience is needed to fully understand its potential impact.
Gabriel Soderberg, Mr. John Kiff, Hervé Tourpe, Ms. Marianne Bechara, Stephanie Forte, Kathleen Kao, Ashley Lannquist, Tao Sun, and Akihiro Yoshinaga
Digitalization of the economy provides both challenges and opportunities. Central banks should ensure that they have the capacity to continue to meet their policy objectives in the digital age. It is in this context that central bank digital currency (CBDC) should be evaluated. If designed appropriately, CBDCs could allow central banks to modernize payment systems and future-proof central bank money as the pace and shape of digitalization continues to evolve. However, the decision to proceed with CBDC exploration and an eventual launch would need to be jurisdiction specific, depending on the degree of digitalization of the economy, the legal and regulatory frameworks, and the central bank’s internal capacity. This paper proposes a dynamic decision-making framework under which the central bank can make decisions under uncertainty. A phased and iterative approach could allow central banks to adjust the pace, scale, and scope of their CBDC projects as the domestic and international environment changes.
Mrs. Gayon M Hosin, Mr. David S. Hoelscher, and Mr. Geoffrey J Mortlock
This technical assistance report on The Bahamas focuses on operationalizing the new bank resolution framework and amended deposit insurance legislation-second mission. The Bahamas has made considerable progress in developing the legal framework, infrastructure, and key tools for an effective bank recovery and resolution regime and is taking steps to operationalize the regime. Effective operationalization of the resolution regime will also require review and reform in other key framework areas, including contingency arrangements for public resolution funding if required, fully implementing the deposit insurance system, and establishing a program of regular testing. Strengthening and updating the supervisory early intervention and recovery planning frameworks and requirements are critical to maintaining financial system stability in the context of acknowledged limits of the structure and depth of the financial system that, in turn, constrain resolution options. Enhancement of the underpinning legislation is recommended to support building out and implementing the operational infrastructure for bank resolution.