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World Economic Outlook, April 2018

Cyclical Upswing, Structural Change

The upswing in global investment and trade continued in the second half of 2017, but medium-term risks point to challenges for future growth.

World Economic Outlook, April 2018

Cyclical Upswing, Structural Change

The upswing in global investment and trade continued in the second half of 2017, but medium-term risks point to challenges for future growth.

Women in Finance: A Case for Closing Gaps

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Women in Finance: A Case for Closing Gaps »

Volume/Issue: 2018/5

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Ratna Sahay , and Martin Cihak

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 September 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484375907.006

ISBN: 9781484375907

Keywords: Bank supervision, Banking, Economic growth, Financial stability, Gender equality, Gender, Financial inclusion, Boards of Directors

Women are underrepresented at all levels of the global financial system, from depositors and borrowers to bank board members and regulators. A new study at the IMF finds that greater inclusion of women as users, p...

Managing Reductions in Aid Inflows: Assessing Policy Choices in Haiti

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Managing Reductions in Aid Inflows: Assessing Policy Choices in Haiti »

Volume/Issue: 2018/198

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ioana Moldovan , Marina Rousset , and Chris Walker

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 September 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484370322.001

ISBN: 9781484370322

Keywords: General equilibrium models, Fiscal policy, Monetary policy, Public investment, International reserves, Capital inflows, Low-income developing countries, Haiti, Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Model (DSGE); Aid; Fiscal Policy; Monetary Policy; Public Investment; Foreign Reserves; Haiti

A low-income country such as Haiti that confronts an environment of diminishing aid inflows must assess tradeoffs among the available policy options: spending cuts, monetization, sales of debt, or use of foreign re...

Macroprudential Stress Tests and Policies: Searching for Robust and Implementable Frameworks

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Macroprudential Stress Tests and Policies: Searching for Robust and Implementable Frameworks »

Volume/Issue: 2018/197

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ron Anderson , Jon Danielsson , Chikako Baba , Udaibir Das , Heedon Kang , and Miguel Segoviano Basurto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 September 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484375839.001

ISBN: 9781484375839

Keywords: Macroprudential Stress testing, Macroprudential Policy, Systemic Risk, Financial Stability

Macroprudential stress testing (MaPST) is becoming firmly embedded in the post-crisis policy-frameworks of financial-sectors around the world. MaPSTs can offer quantitative, forward-looking assessments of the resil...

An Imperfect Financial Union With Heterogeneous Regions

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An Imperfect Financial Union With Heterogeneous Regions »

Volume/Issue: 2018/205

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Filippo Balestrieri , and Suman Basu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 September 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484375631.001

ISBN: 9781484375631

Keywords: Capital flows, sudden stop, financial union, heterogeneous regions

We analyze a union of financially-integrated yet politically-sovereign countries, where households in the Northern core of the union lend to those in the Southern periphery in a unified debt market subject to a bor...

The Fiscal Cost of Conflict: Evidence from Afghanistan 2005-2016

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The Fiscal Cost of Conflict: Evidence from Afghanistan 2005-2016 »

Volume/Issue: 2018/204

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Philip Barrett

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 September 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484374931.001

ISBN: 9781484374931

Keywords: conflict, peace dividend, fiscal policy, AfghanistanI

I use a monthly panel of provincially-collected central government revenues and conflict fatalities to estimate government revenues lost due to conflict in Afghanistan since 2005. I identify causal effects by instr...

Fintech, Inclusive Growth and Cyber Risks: Focus on the MENAP and CCA Regions

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Fintech, Inclusive Growth and Cyber Risks: Focus on the MENAP and CCA Regions »

Volume/Issue: 2018/201

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Inutu Lukonga

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 September 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484374900.001

ISBN: 9781484374900

Keywords: Fintech, Cyber Risks, Financial Stability, Inclusive Growth and Financial Inclusion

Financial technology (fintech) is emerging as an innovative way to achieve financial inclusion and the broader objective of inclusive growth. Thus far, fintech in the MENAP and CCA remains below potential with limi...

External Audit Arrangements at Central Banks

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External Audit Arrangements at Central Banks »

Volume/Issue: 2018/199

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Atilla Arda , Martin Gororo , Joanna Grochalska , and Mowele Mohlala

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 September 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484375501.001

ISBN: 9781484375501

Keywords: central banks, external audit, accountability, transparency, audit committee

This paper takes stock of external audit arrangements at central banks. Its focus is on the annual audit of central bank financial statements, as well as legal and institutional measures that support audit quality...

Dollarization and Financial Development

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Dollarization and Financial Development »

Volume/Issue: 2018/200

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Geoffrey Bannister , Jarkko Turunen , and Malin Gardberg

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 September 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484373361.001

ISBN: 9781484373361

Keywords: dollarization, financial development, financial deepening, financial inclusion and developing economies

Despite significant strides in financial development over the past decades, financial dollarization, as reflected in elevated shares of foreign currency deposits and credit in the banking system, remains common in...

Cross-Border Credit Intermediation and Domestic Liquidity Provision in a Small Open Economy

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Cross-Border Credit Intermediation and Domestic Liquidity Provision in a Small Open Economy »

Volume/Issue: 2018/202

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Thorvardur Olafsson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 September 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484373354.001

ISBN: 9781484373354

Keywords: financial frictions, cross-border banking flows, macrofinancial linkages, financial intermediation, working capital, credit contracts

This paper develops a small open economy model where global and domestic liquidity is intermediated to the corporate sector through two financial processes. Investment banks intermediate cross-border credit through...

Carbon Taxation for International Maritime Fuels: Assessing the Options

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Carbon Taxation for International Maritime Fuels: Assessing the Options »

Volume/Issue: 2018/203

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ian Parry , Dirk Heine , Kelley Kizzier , and Tristan Smith

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 September 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484374559.001

ISBN: 9781484374559

Keywords: Maritime emissions, climate mitigation, carbon tax, revenue-neutral feebate, design issues, spreadsheet model, International Marime Organization.

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) announced in April 2018 a target of cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the sector by 50 percent below 2008 levels by 2050 and subsequent meetings of the IMO wi...