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Willy H. Verheye

products. Given that social changes are increasing the demand for rice, it would make sense to focus on increasing rice production. A number of upland farmers in The Gambia—whose millet and sorghum production was gradually decreasing—recently adopted such a strategy. They acquired usufruct rights in the lowlands of The Gambia River system and shifted part of their activities to swamp rice cultivation. In good years, and supported by improved farming techniques, their production rapidly exceeded their families’ needs and they were able to market some of their surplus

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

countries found that on average the top income quintile received 6 times more benefits from generalized energy subsidies than the bottom quintile. 8 To date, no assessment has been made of the distributional impact of wheat subsidies, but anecdotal evidence suggests that they are regressive, as wheat is mostly consumed in urban and relatively higher income areas, with poorer rural areas consuming more sorghum. In addition, Sudan is self-sufficient in sorghum production but wheat production is more limited (and hence the need to import wheat). The low domestic wheat

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This paper explains that in Sudan, the public information campaign should be launched as early as possible following a decision to phase out subsidies. This campaign should comprise wide-ranging consultations with all stakeholders, and should inform the public about the high costs and unequal distribution of the subsidy benefits. Cash transfers could be used to mitigate the impact of fuel subsidy removal on the lowest income groups. In the case of the removal of subsidies on fuel products, it is estimated that the cost of compensating the lowest income groups could be achieved at a cost of less than 1 percent of GDP a year. Two decades of economic sanctions led to the exit of most Correspondent Banking Relationships (CBRs) from Sudan, and weighed heavily on trade, investment, growth, and humanitarian relief. In 2017, the United States revoked trade and financial sanctions, while sanctions imposed by the UN, and other countries, including the EU, remain applicable.
International Monetary Fund

official marketing agencies 6.9 26.8 21.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Sorghum Production 452.6 468.5 383.7 288.7 399.6 290.7 Purchases by official marketing agencies 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Cowpeas Production 213.0 432.7 402.3 162.8 385.6 354.6 Purchases by official marketing agencies 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Exports 8.0 16.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Groundnuts (unshelled) Production 15.7 41.1 57.1 20.1 67.4 102.6 Purchases by official

International Monetary Fund

.6 Sources: Ministry of Finance and Planning; and staff estimates. Table VI. Niger: Production, Marketing, and Exports of Agricultural Products, 1989/90-1993/94 1/ (In thousands of metric tons) 1989/90 1990/91 1991/92 1992/93 1993/94 Est. Est. Millet Production 1,213.3 1,119.9 1,852.7 1,787.1 1,425.6 Purchases by official marketing agencies 0.8 6.9 26.8 21.0 … Sorghum Production 382.2 452.6 468.5 383.7 288

International Monetary Fund

/95-1999/2000 (In thousands of metric tons) 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 Est. Millet Production 1972.0 2019.1 1761.1 1351.9 2391.0 2296.2 Sorghum Production 399.6 290.7 408.3 289.7 501.4 476.1 Cowpeas Production 385.6 354.6 295.2 192.5 774.6 420.7 Exports … … 35.0 33.0 54.0 20.4 Groundnuts (unshelled) Production 67.4 102.6 196.0 87.9 99.0 103.7 Rice

International Monetary Fund

/99 1999/00 2000/01 Est. Millet Production 2,019.1 1,761.1 1,351.9 2,391.0 2,296.2 1,679.0 Sorghum Production 290.7 408.3 289.7 501.4 476.1 371.0 Cowpeas Production 354.6 295.2 192.5 774.6 420.7 263.0 Exports … 35.0 33.0 19.7 20.4 19.9 Groundnuts (unshelled) Production 102.6 196.0 87.9 99.0 103.7 113.2 Rice Production 67.7 60.0 64.4 55.1 60.5 60

International Monetary Fund

, and Exports of Agricultural Products, 1996/97-2000/2003 1/ (In thousands of metric tons) 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 Millet Production 1761.1 1351.9 2391.0 2296.2 1679 2358.7 2567.2 Sorghum Production 408.3 289.7 501.4 476.1 371 663.6 669.7 Cowpeas Production 295.2 192.5 774.6 420.7 263 509.5 654.2 Exports 35.0 33.0 19.7 20.4 19.9 7.0 14.2 Groundnuts

International Monetary Fund
This report provides the IMF's projections and estimates on Niger's gross domestic product by sector at current market prices; gross domestic product of the modern and traditional sector at current market prices; gross domestic product at constant 1987 prices; government revenue and grants; monetary survey; summary accounts of the central and commercial banks; interest rates on money markets, during 1994–99; rediscount rates applied by the central bank, 1989–99; lending applied by commercial banks, 1988–99; deposit rates applied by the commercial banks, 1989–99; summary of the tax system, as of September 30, 2000, and so on.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.