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Gordon Hughes

surface and groundwater sources on which many people rely. From an economic standpoint, there are other costs, too. The need to spend money on maintaining or replacing physical assets (buildings, pipes, roads, and bridges) that have been damaged by dirt or acidity in the air, or by saline water is certainly the biggest of these costs. There are also losses from diminished productivity of farms and forests. Nonetheless, the sums involved are small relative to the estimated costs of poor air quality to human health. But are Eastern Europe’s problems really any worse

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

production will however be difficult due to several factors: Decreased Crop Area: The natural resources, land and water and soil fertility, available for agricultural production has however been declining. It is reported that cultivated land has been declining by almost one percent per year due to its demand for increased habitation, industrial and commercial establishment, transport infrastructure, river erosion, and intrusion of saline water in the coastal areas. Therefore the land available for crop production has been declining and the trend will continue. The

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

sea. Sudden breaches in embankments have been destroying standing crops, inundating crop lands with saline water, thereby diminishing economic potential of the coastal lands, and forcing poor people to out-migrate from the affected areas by destroying their livelihoods. A potential implication would be that future storm surges might be even higher than those observed currently. About 1.2 million hectares of arable land are affected by varying degree of soil salinity, tidal flooding during wet season, direct inundation by saline water and upward and lateral

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

sea surface temperatures and the occurrence of too many rough sea events in the recent years. High wind actions have been causing economic damage to fisher folks by quickly damaging the traditional boats. High wind actions have been eroding sea-facing coastal islands; even embankments located far inland than the open sea. Sudden breaches in embankments have been destroying standing crops, inundating crop lands with saline water, thereby diminishing economic potential of the coastal lands, and forcing poor people to out-migrate from the affected areas by destroying

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

share), industrial (20 percent share), commercial (15 percent share), government (11 percent share) and other (5 percent share) consumers. SEC produces 77 percent of total energy supplied and purchases electricity from other corporations to meet the rest of the 23 percent of domestic electricity demand. Other producers of electricity include the state-owned Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC), which also provides desalinated water to Saudi Arabia and is the second largest single producer of electricity (6 percent share), while several privately

International Monetary Fund

-machineries and equipment Ensuring maximum and efficient utilization of land and encouraging crop diversification Ensuring better participation of women in implementing development programmes Creating investment friendly environment in productive sectors Development of appropriate marketing infrastructure to ensure fair price for agroproducts Ensure continuous and uninterrupted supply of gas and electricity Promoting tourism industries to flourish Introduction of agro-technology suitable for saline water and shrimp culture adopting modern technique Minimizing

Shahid Yusuf and Ms. Daniela Gressani

will require tough policy decisions and a dose of luck. When faced with adversity, countries are capable of surprising feats of resilience, and some countries in the MENA region may yet surprise us all with a short transition to a higher growth rate. However, as these countries forge ahead, and their immediate problems are partially resolved, they will need to come to grips with others of a less tractable nature: climate change and associated desertification, water shortages, coastal inundation and intrusion of saline water; rising relative prices of minerals and

International Monetary Fund
This paper presents the status report on Bangladesh’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). Having prepared the Interim-PRSP (I-PRSP) in March 2003, the government of Bangladesh has set itself to a well-rounded process of preparing the full-blown PRSP by December 2004. That would entail a time span of 21 months compared with the average time of about 26 months reported to have been required by the I-PRSP countries to complete their full PRSPs. The government adheres to the core principles of the PRSP that it should be country-driven, results-oriented, comprehensive in scope, partnership-oriented, and fully participatory in nature.
International Monetary Fund

- domestic use - industrial use Protect flood, improve drainage and reduce vulnerability expenditure on flood protection, drainage system and vulnerability as percentage of water resource sector expenditure ensure handover of O& M of the existing projects to the beneficiaries gradually ensure cost sharing/cost recovery from the beneficiaries polders rehabilitated cultivable area no. of rehabilitated programmes undertaken protection of lives and properties protected area from tidal flood and saline water agricultural

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
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