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International Monetary Fund

.4 Sources: Desrosiers Automotive Yearbook 2010, Haver Analytics, and Fund staff calculation. Note: Employment figures differ from Table 2 because of a sectoral aggregation difference. In addition to those directly employed, this figure reflects associated sectors which can be attributed to the automotive industry in their entirety. 9. Overall results rule out a return to the blockbuster level of North American sales seen in the mid-2000s . In part, this is in line with the view that sales in the United States in the mid-2000s, which comprises the majority of

Aqib Aslam and Ms. Alpa Shah

Significant Digital Presence 2.1. Examples of Country-Specific User-based Turnover Taxes 2.2. Revenue Estimates from Proposed Digital Services Taxes 3.1. Details of Other User-based Turnover Taxes on Digital Activities by Country Figures 1. E-commerce Retail Sales in the United States 2. Increase in Internet Usage for the 15 Most Populous Countries 3. Distribution of Alternative (user-related) Factors for 20 Most Populous Economies, 2018 4. Coverage of Current Taxes Based on Types of Services and Residency of Supplier 5. Share of Technology Companies

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

fiscal response in the United States and in the rest of the industrial world to a collapse of the U.S. dollar? If a sudden drop in the dollar reflects the bursting of a speculative bubble, there are no obvious monetary and fiscal policy implications. Collapses reflecting perceived changes in fundamentals do, however, in general call for stabilization policies. A shift in liquidity preference out of the dollar calls for open market sales in the United States and open market purchases in the rest of the industrial world. Third, what should be the macroeconomic policy

J. Gregory Dees

information is also private, but it hopes to be profitable and has promised to set aside 10 percent of the net proceeds from sales in the United States and Canada to provide lighting to distressed communities through partnerships with best-in-class established nonprofits. It is only one of many experiments to bring solar and other forms of distributed electrical power to rural areas in developing countries that lack electricity. These kinds of market-based interventions must pass the market test. If the products do not provide value, through savings or improved quality of

Mr. Robert J. Corker and J. Marquez-Ruarte

directed toward the manufacturing sector. Direct investment in the automobile sector—particularly in the United States—has been one of the most prominent overseas manufacturing ventures: automobile production in the United States quadrupled between 1985 and 1989 to ¾ million units and Japanese automobile manufacturing capacity in the United States is forecast to amount to 2 million units in the next few years (see tabulation below). Investment in consumer electronics overseas production plants has also been considerable. Japanese Automobile Sales in the United States

International Monetary Fund
The changes to the structure of Japanese exports and imports in the second half of the 1980s departed significantly from past trends. Econometric analysis confirms that some of the structural changes—notably the importance of consumer goods trade—cannot be fully explained using conventional trade equations. However, the structural changes were consistent with the likely nonlinear effects of the unusually large appreciation of the yen during 1985-87, which, among other things, precipitated a surge in Japanese foreign direct investment.
MICHAEL F. ZELDIN

drug sales in the United States. There are very stringent sanction provisions in this statute, which the administration and Congress enacted despite opposition. 16 Under the statute, sanctions can be imposed against a country whose financial institutions are substantially engaging in currency transactions that affect the United States and involve international narcotics proceeds, if that country has not reached an agreement with the United States or is not negotiating with the United States in good faith to reach an agreement. Sanctions include prohibiting the

Aqib Aslam and Ms. Alpa Shah
The ever-increasing digitalization of businesses has accelerated the need to address the many shortcomings and unresolved issues within the international corporate income tax system. In particular, the customer or “user”—through their online activities—is now considered by many as being a critical driving force behind the value of digital services. Furthermore, the rapid growth of digital service providers over the last decade has made them an increasingly popular target for special taxes—similar to wealth and solidarity taxes—which can also help mobilize much-needed revenues in the wake of a crisis. This paper argues that a plausible conceptual case can be made to tax the value generated by users under the corporate income tax. However, a number of issues need to be tackled for user-based tax measures to become a reality, which include agreement among countries on whether user value justifies a reallocation of taxing rights, establishing the legal right to tax income derived from user value, as well as an appropriate metric for valuing user-generated data if it is ever to be used as a tax base. Furthermore, attempting to tax only certain types of business is ill-advised, especially as user data is now being exploited widely enough for it to be recognized as an input for almost all businesses. Several options present themselves for consideration—from a modified permanent establishment definition combined with taxation by formulary apportionment, to user-based royalty-type taxes—each with their own merits and misdemeanors.
Aqib Aslam, Ms. Alpa Shah, and Ruud de Mooij

countries. Figure 1 highlights how e-commerce sales have formed a growing share of retail sales in the United States over the last two decades, accounting for almost 10 percent of the total in 2018, with over 80 percent carried out through online platforms. 25 Figure 1. E-commerce Retail Sales in the United States (Percent) Sources: U.S. Census Bureau and authors’ calculations. 1/ This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing all types of merchandise using the electronic and print media to induce direct response by the