and Exchange Trade (Uzoptbirzhetorg). The new voluntary association consists of 11 trade firms (open joint-stock companies), territorial brokerage companies, commodity and raw material stock exchanges, a bank, and a transportation expediting agency. The Association also has a number of industrial enterprises (producing among other goods, building materials and consumer goods), processingfirms (such as procuring paper from waste paper), production services and leasing services. The major activity of the Association is trade and intermediation activities. However, it
Countries generally tax the forestry sector to achieve the twin objectives of revenue maximization and sustainability of logging levels. In an ideal world of perfect markets and information, auctions would be the best instrument to determine the price of extraction rights. However, a number of factors-including a lack of information on the forest resources under consideration, uncertainties as to the stability of property rights over time, and a lack of access to credit-have limited the use of auctions so far, particularly in low-income countries. To establish transparency of the forestry sector's financial flows, this paper discusses a radical simplification of Liberia's current timber tax structure, including a proposal to reduce the sector's current tax system to two instruments, an area tax and an export tax.
—many governments set the maximum tariffs well above the actual tariffs collected in 1986-88.
These tariffs are highly damaging. First, by raising domestic prices above world prices, they make food more expensive for consumers. Second, they increase the costs of domestic food-processingfirms, making them less competitive in export markets. Third, the artificial expansion of the domestic agricultural sector boosts the demand for resources, making the latter more expensive for the rest of the economy. These economic costs must be added to those created by export subsidies for
” labor and capital factors. As a result, the shadow cost of innovating and producing a new good falls. That is, by reducing the profitability of current low-tech products, Chinese trade reduces the opportunity cost of innovation, which frees up inputs to produce new products and revamp processes.
Firms have responded to the threat of Chinese imports by increasing their productivity—adopting better IT, boosting R&D spending, and increasing patenting .
The trapped factor effect is well illustrated at a U.S. machinery parts firm we recently visited. Until the