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John Finger, J. Michael Nash, Kenneth King, William McGreevey, Vikram Khanna, and Erich Spitaeller

same is true of industry. And in the United States, the industries that would be hurt by free trade with Mexico are dying anyway from other competitive pressures. In keeping with the theme, Robert Pastor concludes that the cries of alarm over noneconomic issues are also misplaced. There is no good reason to expect polluters to flock to Mexico. Pollution control technology is low-cost and hard to unbundle from production technology. The effects along the border are likely to be to reduce the concentration of polluting maquiladoras. And within Mexico, pollution

Peter Wieczorowski, James Hanson, and U.P. Reich

avoid discussion of environmental concerns. As Mr. Miller states, investing in steel-making facilities is costly. However, adequate pollution control technology to protect the local and global environment adds a significant additional financial burden. Unfortunately, as experience reveals, environmental protection is usually the first casualty of tight budgets in developing countries. We need only look to Eastern Europe or Latin America for examples of that. In closing, I would like to suggest that persons concerned with the distribution of international aid should

James Lee and Robert Goodland

discharges, have high energy and labor costs, and produce excessive quantities of hazardous wastes, whose disposal is often uncontrolled. The costs of add-on pollution control technologies are usually prohibitively expensive and do not resolve the basic deficiencies in the industrial processes; moreover, such facilities are most often operated very inefficiently and with many health and safety hazards. The economies of many developing countries depend heavily on the use of their natural resource base, especially in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. It is unfortunate

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

, etc.; early warning systems, structural engineering for resistance of natural disasters and loss mitigation technologies; energy engineering, including energy generation (renewable/ non-renewable), energy storage, efficient utilization and pollution control technologies. New emerging research areas : There is a constant need to review developments at the cutting edge of basic research. A task force should be deployed to monitor global development in the R&D and bring in information for scientific communities on new area of development in science and technology

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper describes the World Bank’s mission in a changing world. Conditionality of the Bank is different in several ways as it operates over a longer timeframe and relates to the more comfortable issues of economic growth rather than financial stabilization. The longer timeframes of the Bank’s programs require reaching agreement with borrowing countries on the desirability of maintaining the course that’s being advocated for an extended period. Many developing countries are unduly sensitive about the possibility that they may have to exercise their sovereignty more forcefully in the future.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.
International Monetary Fund

The distribution of poor population in Pakistan suggests that almost 75 percent of the poor are clustered around the poverty line. The economy moved to a higher growth trajectory in the vicinity of 6–7 percent real GDP growth during FY 2002–07, and resultantly the poverty declined substantially in FY 2004/05. The productive capacity of the economy remained alien to this higher growth and new industrial capacity was hardly added to the economy. The fiscal year 2007/08 was a volatile year for Pakistan’s economy both on domestic and external fronts.

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
The Sixth Five Year Plan, as outlined in Bangladesh's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, targets strategic growth and employment. The medium-term macroeconomic framework plan entails the involvement of both the private and public sectors. Human resources development strategy programs reaching out to the poor and the vulnerable population, as well as environment, climate change, and disaster risk management, have been included in the plan. Managing regional disparities for shared growth and strategy for raising farm productivity and agricultural growth have been outlined. Diversifying exports and developing a dynamic manufacturing sector are all inclusive in the proposed plan.