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Gordon Hughes

plant managers could be mobilized to achieve better environmental performance, while avoiding the danger of enforcing outdated or costly technology standards. One word of caution, however. Pollution charges should be reserved for dealing with emissions from large- or medium-sized industrial plants that can be monitored at reasonable cost. This includes air pollutants such as dust, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and even carbon dioxide, and water pollutants such as organic material, suspended solids, and some heavy metals. Toxic chemicals, other heavy metals, and

David A. Lipton

nonsalaried workers and facilitate mobility across pension plans. Getting prices right : Efficient energy taxation is essential to environment-friendly growth. The price of fossil fuels needs to reflect their contribution to pollution for growth to be environmentally sustainable. Energy taxes are a straightforward extension of gasoline taxes. Carbon charges can be applied in proportion to a fuel’s CO 2 emission rate, local air pollution charges can be set on coal use, with credit for emission-control technologies linked directly to smokestack emissions. Gasoline taxes

International Monetary Fund

, the IMF has encouraged reforms to progressively eliminate the substantial subsidies on diesel fuel and other petroleum products, since these encourage water overuse by unduly reducing the costs of operating water pumps. The IMF has typically not involved itself, however, in the design of pollution charges and other taxes explicitly designed to correct environmental externalities, leaving this to other organizations with the required expertise. The forestry sector provides an example of how fiscal policy can be used to capture resource rents while, at the same time

VINOD THOMAS and TAMARA BELT

these options are put on the table at the time key fiscal, trade, and industrial policies are discussed. Their benefits and costs would be revealed, providing the basis to pursue the best approaches. Protecting the environment Application of market-based instruments in Latin America Credit subsidies Tax/tariff relief Deposit-refund schemes Waste fees and levies Forestry taxation Pollution charges Earmarked renewable resource taxes Earmarked conventional tax levy Tradable permits Ecolableling Liability insurance Barbados

MOHAN MUNASINGHE, WILFRIDO CRUZ, and JEREMY WARFORD

Europe, by a need for more privatization. The former centrally planned economies of this region have been burdened by the legacy of low energy prices and the lack of an incentive system for efficient resource utilization. But with the massive economic restructuring underway, in recent years energy prices and pollution charges have been rising. In Poland, for example, energy prices doubled in 1988 (although they still remained only about half of Western European prices); coal prices increased from $6 per ton in 1989 to $37 per ton in 1992. While there has been some

Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

sources used in this book. A number of noteworthy points can be made from Figure 6.1 . The carbon component of the corrective tax is substantial, equivalent to about $3.3/GJ, or about 66 percent of the average world coal price in 2010. The corrective tax for carbon varies little across countries because there is little variation in carbon emissions/GJ of coal, and the illustrated CO 2 damage value is applied to all countries. More striking, however, is that the local pollution charge is often larger than the carbon charge, though it varies considerably across

Ian W.H. Parry, Baoping Shang, Mr. Philippe Wingender, Nate Vernon, and Tarun Narasimhan

the power sector and large industrial firms but not for coal consumed by small users in the other energy sector (where abatement equipment is less practical). In the latter case, a local air pollution charge is still applied (upfront) to coal supply, but there is assumed to be no change in emission rates relative to the baseline. Charges in line with local air pollution costs for natural gas and oil products are also imposed, with no effect on emission rates (an unimportant assumption given the small contribution of these fuels to air pollution deaths). The

Mr. David C Nellor and Mr. Ronald T. McMorran

, electricity, and coal. Zero rate for industrial and heavy fuel oil. Beverage containers and fertilizers. France Aircraft noise charge. Waste oil charge on production of lubricating oil per ton. Water pollution charge. License fees for nuclear plants, fees for protection of sensitive nature areas, and annual fee on establishments that pose an environmental risk. Excise on motor vehicle fuel with higher rate on leaded fuel. Special taxes to hydrocarbon fund from oils. Gas consumption taxed. Ad valorem tax on electricity. Ho coal tax. Standard VAT rate for all

International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

increases, the fuel demand function becomes more inelastic. The response of fuel demand is medium to long term. The decrease in miles travelled per passenger may occur relatively fast, but the substitution for more efficient cars and trucks will take longer. 66 This tax has two components, a global pollution levy of US$5 per ton of CO2 (standard carbon tax), and a local pollution charge, which taxes other common air pollutants and depends on local erosion conditions; Law 20.780/2014, section 8. These pollutants are particulate matter, nitrogen oxide (NOx) and

Mr. John Norregaard and Ms. Valerie Reppelin

a Better Environment and High Employment ,” in Green Budget Reform in Europe: Countries at the Forefront , ed. by K. Schlegelmilch ( Berlin; New York : Springer-Verlag ). 10.1007/978-3-642-58637-8_8 Oates , W. , 1992 , “ Pollution Charges as a Source of Public Revenues. Quality of the Environment Division ,” Discussion Paper No. 5 , ( Washington : Resources for the Future ). Oates , W. , 1995 , “ Green Taxes: Can We Protect the Environment and Improve the Tax System at the Same Time? ” Southern Economic Journal , Vol. 61 ( No. 4 ). 10