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Shlomo Reutlinger

increasing the incomes of the poor by a higher percentage than the incomes of the rich. Moreover, the administrative cost can sometimes be much lower for a market-wide food subsidy than for an income transfer program aimed at specific target groups, and a mass subsidy reaches more of the target population. Subsidizing food prices for all consumers is clearly more costly for the government budget than subsidizing food prices for target groups. Such policies generally require heavy involvement of the government in the wholesale food trade. The government must manage a two

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

been preserved. Although challenging, the approval of the social security reform would represent a breakthrough for fiscal sustainability and would create space for means-tested income transfer programs. Under difficult conditions, the authorities have intensified their efforts to gather political and public opinion support to the proposition as it requires a 60 percent qualified majority in each house of Congress. 9. The fiscal situation in a few states is challenging . While the fiscal condition of most states is manageable, some require sharp adjustment, in

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

interest bill, additional spending on goods and services, and an increase in income transfer programs. The overall balance of payments deteriorated significantly in 2015 despite an improvement in the terms of trade. The current account deficit was contained at 2.5 percent of GDP in 2015—the same level as in 2014. Capital flows have also been a key driving force behind the deterioration in the balance of payments. The capital and financial account position has weakened due to foreign exit from government securities, lower FDI inflows, and slow implementation of

Mr. Alexander D Klemm, Ms. Li Liu, Victor Mylonas, and Mr. Philippe Wingender

. Sachs , D. , A. Tsyvinski , and N. Werquin , 2016 , “ Nonlinear Tax Incidence and Optimal Taxation in General Equilibrium ,” CESIFO Working Paper , No. 6089 . Saez , E . 2001 , “ Using Elasticities to Derive Optimal Income Tax Rates ,” Review of Economic Studies , Vol. 68 ( 1 ), pp. 205 – 29 . 10.1111/1467-937X.00166 Saez , E , 2002 , “ Optimal Income Transfer Programs: Intensive Versus Extensive Labour Supply Responses ,” Quarterly Journal of Economics , Vol. 117 ( 2 ), pp. 1039 – 73 . 10.1162/003355302760193959 Saez , E. , J

Michal Andrle, Mr. Shafik Hebous, Mr. Alvar Kangur, and Mr. Mehdi Raissi

lungo periodo del sistema pensionistico e socio-sanitario ,” Department of the State Accountant General, Ministry of Economy and Finance, Report No. 18 ( September ). Saez , E. , Slemrod , J. , and Giertz , S. , 2002 , “ Optimal Income Transfer Programs: Intensive versus Extensive Labor Supply Responses ,” Quarterly Journal of Economics , Vol. 117 , pp. 1039 – 1073 . 10.1162/003355302760193959 Settergren , O. and D.B. Mikula , 2006 , “ The Rate of Return of Pay-As-You-Go Pension Systems: A More Exact Consumption-Loan Model of Interest

International Monetary Fund

Aged, 1980,” Social Security Bulletin , January 1983; current population surveys, March 1985. References Aaron , H. , Economic Effects of Social Security ( Washington : The Brookings Institution , 1982 ). Burtless , G. , and H. Aaron , eds. , Retirement and Economic Behavior ( Washington : The Brookings Institution , 1984 ). Council of Europe , The Protection of the Very Old ( Strasbourg , 1984 ). Danziger , S. , R. Haveman , and R. Plotnick , “ How Income Transfer Programmes Affect Work, Savings and

Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Mr. Alex Segura-Ubiergo, and Enrique Flores

of Political Science , Vol. 34 , pp. 229 – 49 . 10.1017/S0007123404000031 Saez , Emmanuel , 2000 , “ Optimal Income Transfer Programs: Intensive versus Extensive Labor Supply Responses, ” NBER Working Paper No. 7708 ( Cambridge, Massachusetts : National Bureau of Economic Research ). Sala-i-Martin , X. , and A. Subramanian , 2003 , “ Addressing the Natural Resource Curse: An Illustration from Nigeria, ” NBER Working Paper 9804 ( Cambridge, Massachusetts : National Bureau of Economic Research ). Salehi-Isfahani , D. , B.W. Stucki

KATHIE KRUMM, BRANKO MILANOVIC, and MICHAEL WALTON

—will suffer disproportionately over the medium-to-long term, as well as in the short term. This article is drawn from the authors’ World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 1380, “Transfers and the Transition from Socialism: Key Tradeoffs,” which was issued in November 1994 . Further reading: Francois Bourguignon, “Optimal Poverty Reduction, Adjustment, and Growth,” World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 5 (May 1991), pp. 315-38; Sheldon Danziger and others, “How Income Transfer Programs Affect Work, Savings, and the Income Distribution: An Overview,” Journal of