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S. Kanesa-Thasan

larger, the larger the amount of certificates issued (as a proportion of export receipts) and the higher the price of the certificates. Second, the system increased the import rate of exchange for the imports for which supplementary payment in certificates was required—generally for nonessential imports. Third, it automatically limited the amount of foreign exchange available for nonessential imports to the value of the export inducement certificates issued to exporters and others, except to the extent that Bank Indonesia issued “special” certificates against its own

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

This paper highlights the exchange rate for the pound sterling soon after it began to float, moved within a relatively narrow range in relation to other major currencies and unrest in the exchange markets moderated. In some countries, such as Australia and Spain, where outward capital movements were still subject to considerable restrictions, these were relaxed to various extents. In a number of primary producing as well as industrial countries, the control of inward capital movements was motivated not by their immediate balance of payments impact but by concern over the extent of foreign ownership of certain sectors of the economy. Contrary to expectations, the monetary unrest remained and capital movements increased. After moderating somewhat in the second half of 1972, late in the period gold prices started to rise again, and they reached new peaks in early 1973. Guatemala, Hong Kong, and Kuwait abolished exchange control. Germany, invoking Article 23 of the Foreign Trade and Payments Law, restricted additional types of capital transactions between residents and nonresidents in order to ward off capital inflows.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

This paper highlights some particularly sharp movements in the effective exchange rates of a number of the currencies of major industrial countries during 1978 and early 1979. These changes followed sizable, but less pronounced movements in the effective exchange rates of some of these currencies in 1977. A number of major policy actions affecting exchange rates were announced by the United States during the period under review. In January 1978, the United States reaffirmed that it would intervene to the extent necessary to counter disorderly conditions in the exchange markets and that for this purpose it would utilize the Exchange Stabilization Fund of the US Treasury and the US$20 billion swap network of the US Federal Reserve System. During the period under review, a number of other member countries adopted new exchange arrangements or modified their existing exchange arrangements. These changes reflected a continuation of the trend observed in recent years for members to adapt existing exchange arrangements to their own institutional circumstances and individual policy needs.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

This paper discusses relaxation of restrictions in most cases that applied to trade; in some countries there was also liberalization with respect to invisibles. Yugoslavia introduced a major revision of its trade and payments system at the beginning of 1967 and has initiated steps to reduce its reliance on bilateral trade and payments arrangements; this took on greater significance because economic decision making within Yugoslavia has been decentralized further and made more responsive to market forces. India, by measures associated with devaluation, carried out a major simplification of export promotion measures and a substantial relaxation of restrictions on imports. Restrictions on imports were relaxed in other countries, including Austria, Iceland, Israel, Japan, Korea, Morocco, Rwanda, South Africa, and Uruguay. Progress in working off commercial and financial arrears occurred in several countries; particularly noteworthy were the starts made by Ghana and Indonesia. Colombia and Pakistan, each having progressively liberalized through most of the year, re-imposed import restrictions near the end of the year; Colombia, however, introduced new regulations in March 1967, which would permit a measure of liberalization of imports.