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Nicoletta Batini
France is the top agricultural producer in the European Union (EU), and agriculture plays a prominent role in the country’s foreign trade and intermediate exchanges. Reflecting production volumes and methods, the sector, however, also generates significant negative environmental and public health externalities. Recent model simulations show that a well-designed shift in production and consumption to make the former sustainable and align the latter with recommended values can curb these considerably and generate large macroeconomic gains. I propose a policy toolkit in line with the government’s existing sectoral policies that can support this transition.
International Monetary Fund

Waste not, want not Simple actions by consumers and food retailers can dramatically cut the 1.3 billion tons of food lost or wasted each year, says a new global campaign to cut food waste launched in January 2013 by the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), and partners. Worldwide, about one-third of all food produced, worth about $1 trillion, is lost or wasted in food production and consumption systems, according to data released by the FAO. Food loss occurs mostly at the production stages

International Working Group on External Debt Statistics

will boost the demand for meat, dairy, and fresh produce. Long-term solutions to food insecurity call for less excess consumption and food waste, removal of barriers to trade, and higher productivity. Low-income countries should also do more to attract capital flows and investment in the agricultural sector. Prepared by Maria Jovanović. Text and charts are based on the Commodities Special Feature in the IMF’s October 2016 World Economic Outlook.

Nicoletta Batini

ecosystems. Similar funds could be established to create new or enforce existing marine conservation areas in critical ecosystems zones, on the blueprint of the conservation successes of the Chilean and Argentinian governments in creating marine parks in the Patagonian sea. Climate-smart technologies and practices are emerging, including methods to expand biomass energy production from crop and food wastes, manure management, renewable energy-based farming systems, solar- or wind-powered water pumping, drip irrigation, innovative greenhouse technologies, and efficient

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

now. In order for increases in agricultural production to be sustainable, he added, humanity must reduce its massive loss and wastage of food, as outlined in a soon-to-be-released UNEP study, Food Wasted, Food Lost: Improving Food Security by Restoring Ecosystems and Reducing Food Loss . Time for a sea change Major changes in how the planet’s marine resources are managed and used are needed to safeguard global food security and preserve coastal and island countries, said Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Director-General José Graziano da Silva at the

Nicoletta Batini

, Graham Moates. Estimates of European food waste levels . ( ). European Union , 2013 . Regulation No. 1307/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 December 2013 Establishing Rules for Direct Payments to Farmers under Support Schemes within the Framework of the Common Agricultural Policy and Repealing Council Regulation (EC) No. 2013 637/2008 and Council Regulation (EC) No 73/2009. Official Journal of the European Union L 347/608 . European Cardiovascular Disease Network , 2017 . 2017 Report . European

Nicoletta Batini and Mrs. Delia Velculescu

generate considerable food waste and loss . Every year, 10 million tons of food, one fifth of the national production, 12 is wasted or lost (see ADEME, 2016 , Fusion, 2016) 13 —the equivalent of nine meals a day for the 12 percent (4 million) of French people who are food insecure. These losses—the cost of which is estimated at €16 billion euros per year in France, have a climate impact of more than 15 million tons of CO2 equivalent (out of France’s total of nearly 480 million tons per year). Europe’s Biggest Food Wasters (Share of total food wasted in 2016

Ms. Thornton Matheson

consumption also generates material wastes at both producer and consumer levels. For example, dry cleaning services proliferate plastic bags and hangers as well as chemical emissions, and catering services produce food waste as well as packaging and, often, single-use serveware. TKTK also notes that legal and medical services produce paper, plastic and biohazard wastes. 14 See, for example, Dinan (2001). 15 ICPP (2007). Solid and wastewater emissions total 2.8 percent, approximately half of which come from solid waste and waste incineration. In some landfills

Nicoletta Batini, Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Philippe Wingender, and Miguel A. Segoviano

, producing 40 percent of the world’s pelts, which ranks third in Denmark’s agricultural export items of animal origin. The role of animal farming in the country’s production, and major share of industrial feed crops for forage, makes the agriculture, fishery and forestry (AFOLU) sector an above-average contributor to the country’s total GHG emissions relative to peers . According to Eurostat data, Denmark’s share of GHGs from crop and animal agriculture in total GHGs in 2019 was over double the average in other EU countries, 66 and emissions from food waste remain

Ms. Thornton Matheson and Ruud de Mooij

consumer behavior. According to KEI (2016), waste generation fell from 1.3 kg per person per day in 1994 to 0.95 kg in 2014, while total waste generation fell from 58.1 tons per day to 49.9 tons. The recycling rate rose from 15.4 percent to 59 percent over the same period. In 2013, an additional composting program for the separation of food wastes was added (although many households began separating food wastes prior to that year in order to reduce their trash output). Landfilled food waste has fallen from 97 percent in 1994 to only about 2 percent in 2014, which has