international organizations (The World Bank, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and the UN Development Programme as so-called cosponsors), private foundations (Rockefeller and Ford), and governments to create an umbrella structure, the CGIAR, to support and guide the existing institutes and to establish other international research centers to deal with pressing development needs of Third World agriculture.
Twenty years of work of the Group have since helped to increase foodcropproductivity in most developing countries, along with a range of other benefits, such as
Uma J. Lele, Mr. James Jerome Gockowski, Kofi Adu-Nyako, and Mr. Peter Wickham
the year 2000—a level never before approached ( Delgado and Pinstrup-Anderson (1993) ). Unless efforts are made to increase foodcropproductivity, with the rapid increase in population and the consequent increased pressure on the land, it is likely that there will be even more pressure on Africa’s export sector.
Under a similar set of conditions, Asian countries were able to finance a greater variety and increasing volumes of imported agricultural goods because of their own spectacular success in both food production and export agriculture and the rapid overall
Increase crop productivity by applying good agricultural practices
Increased in major foodcropsproductivity
Average foodcropsproductivity (quintal/hectare)
Ministry of Agriculture and Regional Counterparts
Ministry of Agriculture annual report
productivity of root crops (quintal/hectare)
productivity of fruit and vegetable crops (quintal/hectare)
Increased in stimulant crops productivity
Uma J. Lele, Mr. James Jerome Gockowski, and Kofi Adu-Nyako
The critical role of agricultural commodities in the growth of low-income countries is examined. A combination of factors has resulted in declining agricultural prices, necessitating further increasing volumes by developing countries to maintain export earnings. But low growth in factor productivity in Africa compared to competitors caused declining export shares in African countries. A broad-based smallholder strategy based on producing commodities in which a country enjoys comparative advantage needs to be supported by productivity enhancing innovations in food and export commodities, a stable price environment, availability of infrastructure and access to credit. Such an environment requires partnership between government and private agents.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper examines the export performance of developing countries. Taking any recent period, for example the past 15 years, the growth rate in export earnings for individual countries has varied from substantial year-to-year increases to absolute declines. Countries with growth rates as high as 13 percent per year include Greece, Jamaica, and Peru, while at the other end of the spectrum are Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay, whose export earnings declined in absolute terms.