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Vitor Gaspar, Mr. David Amaglobeli, Ms. Mercedes Garcia-Escribano, Delphine Prady, and Mauricio Soto
The goal of this paper is to estimate the additional annual spending required for meaningful progress on the SDGs in these areas. Our estimates refer to additional spending in 2030, relative to a baseline of current spending to GDP in these sectors. Toward this end, we apply an innovative costing methodology to a sample of 155 countries: 49 low- income developing countries, 72 emerging market economies, and 34 advanced economies. And we refine the analysis with five country studies: Rwanda, Benin, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Guatemala.
Hui Jin

personal income tax. Therefore, increasing taxes to finance equity-enhancing expenditure priorities will overall reduce inequality in Indonesia. International Experience with Fiscal Reform A basically budget-neutral medium-term fiscal strategy would enhance Indonesia’s growth. International empirical studies find that government expenditure multipliers are notably larger than tax multipliers, although they need to be interpreted with caution ( Box 5.2 ). Therefore, as long as the additional revenue from tax reforms is used for immediate spending, it will likely

Vitor Gaspar, Mr. David Amaglobeli, Ms. Mercedes Garcia-Escribano, Delphine Prady, and Mauricio Soto

, sanitation, and electricity; and improved educational attainment. Yet with a tax-revenue-to-GDP ratio close to 10 percent, it would be difficult to finance additional expenditures that are critical to unlock Indonesia’s development potential. A medium-term fiscal strategy, with a medium-term revenue strategy at its core, is under consideration as part of government reforms started in 2016. The thrust of the fiscal strategy is to raise revenue by about 5 percentage points of GDP in the medium term, corresponding to the needs identified to finance growth- and equity-enhancing