backup production. Coal emissions are twice those of gas. That leaves natural gas as the lowest-carbon alternative.
A modern gas turbine can go from generating zero to a million horsepower in an hour, and back to idle—as needed—with astonishing efficiency. A single plant can provide flexible backup for 600 large wind turbines. The International Energy Agency estimates that in a decarbonizedEUpowersystem, the region’s substantial gas capacity will run only 3.5 hours a day on average to fill in for faltering solar or wind or variations in demand due to weather
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This chapter discusses the story of European integration in what is known as the European Union. The decision in 1951 by six European nations to pool coal and steel production under a common authority—the European Coal and Steel Community—marked the beginning of European integration. French statesman and political visionary Robert Schuman proposed the coal and steel community in 1950. The chapter also highlights that the 28-member European Union, built around common policies and shared institutions, has proved robust to many challenges and has accommodated great change used by 18 countries. The European Union was also awarded the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize. The study shows that the 2008 global financial crisis laid bare fault lines, exposing tensions between EU members and stresses and gaps in institutions and policies that Europe’s political leaders are working hard to address. The IMF’s chief for Europe argues that what Europe needs is more integration, not less.