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Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Mr. Kevin J Carey, and Mr. Ulrich Jacoby

Abstract

What is the impact on trade in sub-Saharan Africa of the recent rapid growth in China and other Asian countries, and the associated commodity price boom? This paper looks at how trading patterns (both destinations and composition) are changing in sub-Saharan Africa. Has the region managed to diversify the products it sells from commodities to manufactured goods? Has it expanded the range of countries to which it exports? And what about the import side? The time is ripe for sub-Saharan African countries to climb up the value chain of their commodity-based exports and/or achieve an export surge based on labor-intensive manufacturing.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

expenses are directly met from budgetary accounts, the revenue of local governments and related spending, and transactions financed from the DACF are not yet covered. Extending the coverage of fiscal data to general government is strongly encouraged. Comprehensive solutions to some of the data problems may have to await full implementation of the BPEMS system and incorporation of Fund technical advice. Various missions from FAD have suggested short-term temporary solutions to alleviate current data quality problems. Monetary and financial statistics : While BOG has

International Monetary Fund

related spending, and transactions financed from the DACF are not yet covered. Extending the coverage of fiscal data to general government is strongly encouraged. Comprehensive solutions to some of the data problems may have to await full implementation of the BPEMS system and incorporation of Fund technical advice. Various missions from FAD have suggested short-term temporary solutions to alleviate current data quality problems. Monetary and financial statistics: While BOG had made significant progress on implementing the previous missions’ recommendations

Mr. Serhan Cevik and Ms. Katerina Teksoz

regression and obtaining the residuals; (3) testing for a unit root in the residuals via ADF test to determine cointegration; and (4) if cointegration is not rejected, estimating a dynamic (ECM) model using the lagged residuals. 20 The Johansen procedure has a number of advantages and is more powerful in smaller samples, but we prefer the Engel-Granger procedure to avoid superfluous computations and also to account for data quality problems. 21 Although the Libyan financial sector expanded significantly over the past four decades, financial intermediation

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

of local government expenses are directly met from budgetary accounts, the revenue of local governments and related spending, and transactions financed from the DACF are not yet covered. Extending the coverage of fiscal data to general government is strongly encouraged. Comprehensive solutions to some of the data problems may have to await full implementation of the BPEMS system and incorporation of Fund technical advice. Various missions from FAD have suggested short-term temporary solutions to alleviate current data quality problems. Monetary and financial

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

solutions to alleviate current data quality problems. The budget and fiscal reporting only covers the budgetary central government (Consolidated Fund), with significant activities at the regional and district level and through the statutory funds remaining outside government finance statistics. The operations of statutory funds, such as the SSNIT (currently regarded as a public financial corporation by the authorities), the Ghana Education Trust Fund (GETF) and the District Assemblies Common Fund (DACF), are not yet covered in the fiscal accounts. Although most local

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

implementation of the Treasury Single Account, slated for August 2017, and strengthening and expanding the operations of the Ghana Integrated Financial Management Information System (GIFMIS) would help improve fiscal reporting. IMF TA missions have suggested short-term temporary solutions to alleviate current data quality problems. At present fiscal accounts include only central government accounts, with significant activities at the regional and district level and through the statutory funds remaining outside government finance statistics. The operations of statutory funds

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

technical advice. Various missions from FAD have suggested short-term temporary solutions to alleviate current data quality problems. Several GFS missions worked with the authorities to improve the economic classification of data in accordance with the requirements of GFSM 2001. In 2009, an STA mission provided guidance on the compilation of a partial financial balance sheet for budgetary central government, and proposed that information on debt stocks that is available on a monthly basis be reported for the inclusion in the International Financial Statistics (IFS