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Owaise Saadat and Francis van Gigch

both to improve local production directly and to create the conditions in which improved productivity can occur. This may involve activities ranging from developing and improving crop varieties and farming practices to offering advice on adjustments to the policy and institutional framework within which a project has to be implemented. A few of the problems encountered are intractable: a farmer cannot reap crops in times of drought, even if he uses proven dryland practices. Nor can he affect the international price of the product he grows. But the Bank’s work has

Alexander von der Osten-Sacken

scientists among a total staff of some 15,000 pursue a complex set of six broad objectives: Productivity research . Stepping up agricultural production through increased productivity has remained a top priority. Improved crop varieties (such as the “dwarf” varieties of wheat and rice, which were critical to Asia’s Green Revolution) with better resistance to pests and diseases are essential, not only to sustain past gains but also to build future productive capacity. At the same time, research to improve soil and water management, fertilizer use, crop management, and

Peter S. Heller and Muthukumaro Mani

by climate change, efforts to stimulate real growth should begin before economic losses start to mount. Countries might want to • Assess the potential economic consequences of climate change and formulate multipronged action plans for informing the private sector and promoting adaptation . This could entail promoting farming practices that produce crops able to withstand climate variability (for example, planting drought-resistant crop varieties); making more efficient use of water resources; or, in the most extreme cases, moving labor and capital out of