cracking the German Enigma code. His team’s work is widely credited with expediting the war’s end, saving millions of lives.
But it is Turing’s influence as a profound and inventive thinker of the modern digital age that the new £50 is celebrating, according to John.
“If you think about where that idea has taken us between 1936 and today,” said John, referring to Turing’s groundbreaking paper that year, which proposed a computingmachine, “and how much computers influence our daily lives—we use them at work, at home, in hospitals, most of us have got a small computer
ComputingMachines. Journal of Chemical Physics 21 ( 6 ), 1087 – 1092 .
C. Moriarity , F. Scheuren ( 2001 ) Statistical matching: A paradigm for assessing the uncertainty in the procedure. Journal of Official Statistics 17 ( 3 ), 407 – 422 .
OECD ( 2008 ) Handbook on Constructing Composite Indicators - Methodology and User Guide. Downloadable from the OECD’s online bookshop at http://browse.oecdbookshop.org/oecd/pdfs/free/3008251e.pdf .
B.A. Okner ( 1972 ) Constructing a new database from existing microdata sets: the 1966 merge
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund. Communications Department
This issue of Finance & Development looks at the economic and financial impact of climate policy choices. It points to concrete solutions that offer growth opportunities, driven by technological innovation, sustainable investment, and a dynamic private sector. The private sector can stop supporting or subsidizing industries and activities that damage the planet and instead invest in sustainable development. Governments can roll out policies to fight climate change and the destruction of nature. The paper highlights that technological change and innovations are central to longer-term efforts to mitigate climate change by developing alternatives to fossil fuels. A new, sustainable financial system is under construction. It is funding the initiatives and innovations of the private sector and amplifying the effectiveness of governments’ climate policies—it could even accelerate the transition to a low-carbon economy. The Bank of England’s latest survey finds that almost three-quarters of banks are starting to treat the risks from climate change like other financial risks—rather than viewing them simply as a corporate social responsibility. Banks have begun to consider the most immediate physical risks to their business models—from the exposure of mortgage books to flood risk to the impact of extreme weather events on sovereign risk.
This paper focuses on expectations for the American economy focused on the likelihood of secular stagnation, which continued to be debated throughout the post-war period. Concerns rose during the late 1960s and early 1970s about rapid population growth smothering the potential for economic growth in developing countries were contradicted when, during the mid- and late-1970s, fertility rates began to decline rapidly. In policy-oriented institutions (and in most businesses and individual decision making), policymaking decisions are often guided by projections and forward-looking indicators. The case of Michael Mussa has been one of great anticipation, and of great accomplishment, and all the early optimistic forecasts about him have turned out to be correct. Within the sphere of economics, undoubtedly the most famous and widely used forecast—one, incidentally, that thus far has often been incorrect—is that based on the Malthusian doctrine of the relationship between resources and population.