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Sascha Djumena

Commemorative material highlights an annual global gathering Sascha Djumena COMMEMORATIVE COINS to mark special occasions or events have been around for centuries. In ancient Rome, commemorative coins were minted to celebrate victorious military campaigns. Today, such coins are issued to celebrate international cooperation and cultural diversity. Since the creation of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group in 1944, the leadership and member countries of both institutions have met every autumn to address critical issues facing

circulation 25,000 57,000 Unissued coins 10,119 27,000 Commemorative coin sets 6,200 8,116 Total inventories 41,319 92,116 ▀ User Guidance Some central banks provide detailed information of their currency inventories. Others would only mention in a statement about their holding of such stocks. Those that expense the cost of the goods upon receipt, while retaining a physical inventory of notes, would not be required to include a financial disclosure regarding the stock retained, however, they should

Monti Mario

involving the central bank, which had been helping to organize the distribution of commemorative coins in a quite illegal way. After some thought, we let them off with a warning, but it meant that I have been quite focused on what goes on in the financial system that can be potentially anticompetitive, and the tension that is there in the financial system with regard to electronic payments, payment and settlement systems, potentially lender of last resort, and financial market rules broadly, and I wonder if you have any thoughts about that as an area of competition policy

International Monetary Fund. Communications Department
This paper discusses that from shifting demographics to climate change, Southeast Asia confronts a host of challenges. Summoning them will require both resilience and flexibility. Advances in artificial intelligence, including robotics, together with innovations such as 3-D printing and new composite materials, will transform manufacturing processes, making them less labor-intensive while creating opportunities for new products. This will enable new ways of making things and change the drivers of competitiveness. There will be indirect effects as well. For example, aircraft manufacturers, taking advantage of new composite materials such as carbon fibers, have developed a class of superlong-haul aircraft that could bring more tourists to Southeast Asia as relatively cheap point-to-point travel options emerge. The region should still enjoy synergies from globalization and other modes of economic integration, but the form and shape of such integration could change. For Southeast Asia, the next couple of decades could prove exhilarating in terms of the opportunities presented by technology and global growth, but also tumultuous because of the continuing risks, such as those posed by an unreformed and unstable international financial architecture. There clearly is much hard work to be done. Policymakers still have not gotten everything right, but they are heading in the right direction.
International Monetary Fund

the European Community. V. I nstitutional, L egal, and R egulatory F rameworks A. Payment System 38. San Marino uses the euro as its currency according to the Monetary Agreement between San Marino and Italy on behalf of the European Community . However, the CBSM does not issue euros except for commemorative coins minted on rare occasions; nor does it perform other monetary policy functions, such as management of reserves, or open market or foreign exchange operations. Banknotes and coins are provided by the Italian Central Bank through an Italian

International Monetary Fund

, adjusted for any currency that was lost, stolen, or destroyed. Calculation of the net acquisition of foreign currencies and deposits must take changes in exchange rates into consideration. 9.28 Currency is treated as a liability of the unit that issued the currency. Consequently, when a unit puts new currency into circulation, a transaction is recorded that increases its liability for currency. Usually the counterpart to the increase in liabilities is an increase in the unit’s financial assets, most likely deposits. 5 Transactions in gold and commemorative coins that

Ms. Anne Y. Kester

“other reserve assets” under I.A.(5) in the template. 94 . As discussed earlier, currency holdings are to be reported in total deposits under item I.A.(1)(b)(i). Currency consists of foreign currency notes and coins in circulation and commonly used to make payments. (Commemorative coins and uncirculated banknotes are excluded.) 95 . For the recording of deposits with institutions headquartered in the reporting country, see the next section, “Identifying Institutions Headquartered in the Reporting Country and Institutions Headquartered Outside the Reporting Country

Mr. Kenneth Sullivan

commemorative currency. However, it is most unlikely that significant amounts of commemorative currency will be returned for redemption at face value. The face value of all commemorative currency issued by the Bank to date is $7,399,000 (1998 $6,799,000). Commemorative coin was issued by the Treasury prior to July 1989. Particular specimens of series issued both before and after 1989 are not generally distinguishable. The Bank has in practice accepted a contingent liability for all commemorative coin, but part of this liability could revert to the Treasury should large

Mr. Jose M Cartas and Artak Harutyunyan

placed into circulation when it is transported from the central bank to an ODC, 4 accompanied by the appropriate accounting entries. 5 Currency is only included in broad money when ODCs’ customers in the money-holding sectors exchange deposits for currency. 6 This currency is labeled Currency outside DCs within broad money liabilities. 7 6.25 Commemorative coins and gold or precious metal coins, which are held for their numismatic and intrinsic value, are excluded from broad money as they are classified as nonfinancial assets rather than as financial assets. An

International Monetary Fund

net position of borrowings in all currencies from banks in Brunei less any claims in all currencies of such banks. 28 However, the BCB’s balance sheet includes a small amount of claims on government on account of amounts outstanding on the sale of commemorative coins. In addition, as the IMF accounts are held by the BCB on behalf of the Ministry of Finance, a counterpart balancing entry is recorded in BCB liabilities as credit from the government. 29 Between 1985 and 1988, failures of the United National Finance Company, the National Bank of Brunei, and