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Ryota Nakatani
A big challenge for the economic development of small island countries is dealing with external shocks. The Pacific Islands are vulnerable to natural disasters, climate change, commodity price changes, and uncertain donor grants. The question that arises is how should small developing countries formulate a fiscal policy to achieve economic stability and fiscal sustainability when prone to various shocks? We study how natural disasters affect long-term debt dynamics and propose fiscal policy rules that could help insulate the economy from such unexpected shocks. We propose fiscal rules to address these shocks and uncertainties using the example of Papua New Guinea. Our study finds the advantages of expenditure rules, especially a recurrent expenditure rule based on non-resource and non-grant revenue, interdependently determined by government debt and budget balance targets with expected disaster shocks. This paper contributes to the literature and policy dialogue by theoretically analyzing the impact of natural disasters on debt sustainability and proposing fiscal rules against natural disasters and climate changes. Our fiscal policy framework is practically applicable for many developing countries facing increasing frequency and impact of natural disasters and climate change. Our rules-based fiscal framework is crucial for sustainable and countercyclical macroeconomic policies to build resilience against devastating natural hazards.
Ryota Nakatani

need to take note of different revenue structures because revenue appropriation strategy depends on specific characteristics of the economy. For example, the permanent income hypothesis (PIH) is useful for commodity exporters, 27 especially for countries that collect revenue from nonrenewable resources (PNG; Timor Leste). In this case, the non-resource primary balance as a percentage of non-resource GDP can be an option as a fiscal target to smooth resource earnings and promote intergenerational equity. Consumption from resource revenue should be a fixed proportion

International Monetary Fund
Uganda’s National Development Plan (NDP) stipulates medium-term strategic direction, development priorities, and implementation strategies. It also details Uganda’s current development status, challenges, and opportunities. The contribution of this NDP to the socioeconomic transformation will be demonstrated by improved employment levels, higher per capita income, improved labor force distribution in line with sectoral GDP shares, substantially improved human development and gender equality indicators, and the country’s competitiveness position, among others. The impressive GDP growth performance has contributed to a significant reduction in poverty levels.
International Monetary Fund

Uganda’s National Development Plan (NDP) stipulates medium-term strategic direction, development priorities, and implementation strategies. It also details Uganda’s current development status, challenges, and opportunities. The contribution of this NDP to the socioeconomic transformation will be demonstrated by improved employment levels, higher per capita income, improved labor force distribution in line with sectoral GDP shares, substantially improved human development and gender equality indicators, and the country’s competitiveness position, among others. The impressive GDP growth performance has contributed to a significant reduction in poverty levels.