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Mr. Philippe Beaugrand
The paper reviews the “stylized facts” on economic growth gathered by Easterly and Levine in their 2001 joint paper and illustrates some of the points made on the basis of data from the IMF’s World Economic Outlook on real growth and per capita GDP since 1970. The data show that the growth performance of many poor countries has been disappointing: most of the “developing” world, especially sub-Saharan Africa, has been getting poorer while the advanced economies have been getting richer. To reverse this trend requires finding ways to raise total factor productivity in poor countries; in turn, this implies letting entrepreneurs innovate—in the Schumpeterian sense—in order to bring about structural changes in the economy. The conclusion highlights several essential steps in creating a favorable environment for innovation and growth.
Mr. Sami Ben Naceur, Mr. Robert Blotevogel, Mr. Mark Fischer, and Haiyan Shi

. 49 ( 1 ), pages 276 – 288 . 10.1111/j.1465-7295.2009.00197.x Schularick , M. and Taylor , A. , 2012 . “ Credit Booms Gone Bust: Monetary Policy, Leverage Cycles, and Financial Crises, 1870-2008 ” American Economic Review , 102 ( 2 ), pages 1029 – 1061 . 10.1257/aer.102.2.1029 Schumpeter J.A. , 1912 . Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung . First edition. Duncker und Humblot, Berlin . UNCTAD (2010), The Financial and Economic Crisis of 2008-2009 and Developing Countries , 2010 . 1 The authors would like to

Mr. Jahangir Aziz

/93 ( Washington : International Monetary Fund ). 10.5089/9781451863536.001 Rajan , R. and L. Zingales , 1998 , “ Financial Dependence and Growth ,” American Economic Review , Vol. 88 , pp. 559 – 586 . Schumpeter , J.A. , 1911 , The Theory of Economic Development ( London : Oxford University Press , reprinted 1969 ). Singh , A. , 1997 , “ Financial Liberalisation, Stock Markets and Economic Development ,” Economic Journal , Vol. 107 , pp. 771 – 782 . 10.1111/j.1468-0297.1997.tb00042.x Singh , C. , 2005 , “ Financial Sector Reforms

Mr. Jaromir Benes, Mr. Michael Kumhof, Mr. Douglas Laxton, Mr. Dirk V Muir, and Susanna Mursula

.1086/261117 Schumpeter , J.A. , 1954 , “ History of Economic Analysis, ” New York , Oxford University Press . Seidman , L.S. , 2003 , “ Automatic fiscal policies to combat recessions, ” M.E. Sharpe , Armonk, NY . Simons , H. , 1946 , “ Debt policy and banking policy, ” Review of Economic Statistics , Vol. 28 No. pp. 85 – 89 . 10.2307/1927355 Simons , H. , 1948 , “ Economic Policy for a Free Society, ” Chicago : University of Chicago Press . Solow , R.M. , 2005 , “ Rethinking fiscal policy, ” Oxford Review of Economic Policy , Vol. 1 , No

Mr. Enrico G Berkes, Ugo Panizza, and Mr. Jean-Louis Arcand

Finance , 21(6) , 777 – 793 . 10.1016/S0261-5606(02)00022-0 Rousseau , P. , and Wachtel , P. , ( 2011 ), “ What is Happening to The Impact of Financial Deepeneing on Economic Growth? ” Economic Inquiry , 49 , 276 – 288 . 10.1111/j.1465-7295.2009.00197.x Sasabuchi , S. , ( 1980 ) “ A test of a multivariate normal mean with composite hypotheses determined by linear inequalities, ” Biometrika 67 , 429 – 39 . 10.1093/biomet/67.2.429 Schumpeter , J. A. ( 1911 ), A Theory of Economic Development , Harvard University Press . Shaw , E

Mr. Michael G. Spencer and Mr. Peter M. Garber

). Sargent , T.J. , “The Ends of Four Big Inflations,” Chapter 3 in Rational Expectations and Inflation ( New York : Harper and Row , 1986 ). Schumpeter , J.A. , “The Crisis of the Tax State,” reprinted in translation in R. Swedberg , ed. The Economics and Sociology of Capitalism ( Princeton : Princeton University Press , 1991 ), pp. 99 - 140 . Schumpeter , J.A. , “The Currency Situation in Austria,” pp. 225 - 231 , in Young , J.P. , European Currency and Finance ( Washington : Government Printing Office , 1925

Mr. Marco Gross and Christoph Siebenbrunner

-6261.1977.tb03324.x Shapiro , N. ( 2005 ). “ Competition and aggregate demand .” Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, 27 ( 3 ): 541 - 49 . Sheard , P. ( 2013 ). “ Repeat after me: Banks cannot and do not ‘lend out’ reserves .” Standard & Poor’s Economic Research. Schumpeter , J.A. ( 1912 ). Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot . Schumpeter , J.A. ( 1954 ). History of Economic Analysis. New York : Oxford University Press . Simons , H.C. ( 1934 ). “ A Positive Program for Laissez Faire

Mr. Lamin Y Leigh

. 1 , pp: 1 – 23 . Saint-Paul , G. ( 1992 ). “Technological choice, Financial Markets and Economic Development” , European Economic Review , Vol. 36 , pp: 763 – 781 . 10.1016/0014-2921(92)90056-3 Sargan , J.D. and Bhargava , A. ( 1983 ). “Testing Residuals From Least Squares For Being Generated by the Gaussian random walk” , Econometrica , Vol. 51 , pp: 153 – 174 . 10.2307/1912252 Schumpeter , J.A. ( 1912 ). The Theory of Economic Development; An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest and the Business Cycle , Harvard

International Monetary Fund

.1016/0014-2921(92)90056-3 Schiantarelli, F., and A. Sembenelli, 1997, The Maturity Structure of Debt: Determinants and Effects on Firm’s Performance, Evidence From the United Kingdom and Italy , World Bank Working Paper No. 1699. Schumpeter, J.A., 1911, “Theorie Der Wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung,” Becker M., and T. Knudsen, 2002, Schumpeter 1911: Farsighted Visions on Economic Development, American Journal of Economics and Sociology , Vol. 61 (2), pp. 387 –437 Stulz, R., 2005, The Limits of Financial Globalization, Journal of Finance , No. 60, pp

Mr. Biaggio Bossone and Mr. Abdourahmane Sarr

Development ,” European Economic Review , 36 , pp, 763 — 781 . 10.1016/0014-2921(92)90056-3 Sarr , A. , 2000 , “ Financial Liberalization, Bank Market Structure, and Financial Deepening: An Interest Margin Analysis ,” IMF Working Paper 00/38 ( Washington : International Monetary Fund ). 10.5089/9781451845686.001 Schumpeter , J. A. , 1934 , The Theory of Economic Development. An Inquiry into profits, Capital, Credit, Interest, and the Business Cycle , ( Cambridge, Massachusetts : Harvard University Press ). Sinkey , F. J. Jr. , 1998