, but will also hide progress (or a lack of it) in smaller countries. To examine how poor countries are doing, the data in chapter 1 are also presented in terms of progress in individual countries—not to replace the standard approach, but to provide additional information.
MDGperformance is measured by deviations from target values required to reach development goals. The reference year for measuring progress is officially set as 1990. Countries are classified as
on target: the country has already achieved or will meet the 2015 development goal if progress
performance. This is the case for El Salvador and Uzbekistan on extreme poverty reduction and for Bhutan and Djibouti on primary completion rates.
BOX 1.2 Gaps and issues in measuring development outcomes beyond 2015
Measuring broad development outcomes through specific indicators is never precise, so the diversity in MDGperformance is partly the result of indicator or measurement issues. Although the purpose of this report is not to focus on these issues, they are important for future deliberations of MDGs beyond 2015. Some of the issues are the following
With less than five years left to achieve the MDGs, this year's report looks at the prospects and challenges for reaching the goals. It also examines the great diversity of performance across indicators, countries, and categories of countriesto determine the necessary policies to fill the remaining gaps.
As we approach 2015 and come closer to meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) targets, the remaining challenges take on increased urgency. One of these is reaching out to the last and most difficult groups to reach—vulnerable populations with tenuous connections to the modern state and its economy.
Both poverty and economic development affect global biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem goods and services. More food, water, and firewood are needed to sustain population growth, especially in the poorer parts of the world. At the same time, expected rising levels of affluence in emerging economies will add to the demand for products like meat, construction timber, and paper. When current technologies and consumption patterns prevail, increased global consumption by a larger and richer population will drive:
Education and health are key dimensions of many of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As 2015 approaches, calls for greater development effectiveness are taking on increased urgency for two reasons: development assistance for health and education has risen to unprecedented amounts, but has not led to expected improvements in outcomes; and the global crisis has forced a reexamination of social spending.
In chapter 1, economic growth is seen as critical to attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Prospects for further progress on the MDGs should be seen in light of macroeconomic developments in emerging and developing economies, and in the global economic environment they face.
The global economy has weathered the financial crisis, but the recovery remains fragile. Governments and international institutions cooperated in the face of recession, thus avoiding the perils of a protectionist spiral, maintaining aid levels, and boosting emergency financial resources. Because a beneficial global environment also supports progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), this chapter reviews recent changes in the international development framework—in the context of the gradual transformation of development policies over the past decade.
will, however, still leave Sierra Leone, the lowest ranking country on UNDP’s index of Human Development Indicators, far short of the MDGs.
Performance as at end-March 2004 under the PRGF arrangement was mixed . While progress was made in implementing program structural measures, fiscal and monetary policies were weaker than envisaged. Shortfalls in external program support in the first quarter of 2004 were not adequately compensated for by fiscal tightening. The government has taken steps to bring year-end domestic financing of the budget closer to program targets
MKUKUTA (PRSP) Annual Implementation Report (MAIR) of November 2007 that showed strong progress in the achievement of some MDGsperformance indicators, particularly in education and health. Notwithstanding such impressive developments, the authorities concur with staff assessment that the country faces three main challenges in the near term: maintaining fiscal stability in the face of uncertain financing; dealing with inflationary pressures; and addressing governance weaknesses and strengthening public accountability.
8. Among the authorities’ main priorities, are