Iran has received much attention from a geopolitical and regional standpoint, but its economic challenges have not attracted a similar degree of interest. With a population of 69 million, considerable hydrocarbon resources, a dynamic and entrepreneurial middle class, and a relatively well-educated labor force, Iran's economic potential is considerable. This volume takes stock of critical developments in the Iranian economy in recent years. The study reviews the key issues and policy responses, highlights the nature of the challenges ahead, and draws implications for the next phase of reforms. The authors conclude that major challenges remain, although significant advances have been made in recent years in opening up the economy to international trade and foreign direct investment, encouraging the private sector, removing exchange restrictions, reforming the tax system, and enhancing macroeconomic management.
V. R eal E ffective E xchange R ate and C ompetitiveness in S waziland 61
105. During 1990–2002, higher inflation in Swaziland than in itstradingpartnercountries has prevented an improvement in overall competitiveness . In nominal effective terms, the lilangeni depreciated steadily, losing about 15 percent of its original value. The real effective exchange rate of the lilangeni fluctuated markedly during the period, but as of July 2002 it was close to its 1990 level ( Figure V.1 ).
Figure V.1. Swaziland: The Real Effective Exchange Rate and Its
country’s external current account deficit was low and export growth strong. Judged by Poland’s real effective exchange rate vis-à-vis itstradingpartnercountries (based on consumer price indices and producer price indices), the country saw an appreciation of 2 to 3 percent a year between end-1994 and mid-2004. A real appreciation can be expected during transition periods, and it need not imply a deterioration in competitiveness to the extent that there are “equilibrium effects”—that is, faster productivity growth in the tradable than in the nontradable sector. The
and some of itstradingpartnercountries is very limited. Second, the methodology is based on the assumption of functioning markets, which did not hold in the early 1990s due to insufficient progress in transition.
18 Before proceeding with the multivariate analysis ( Table 4 ), the stationarity characteristics of the series have been tested performing augmented Dickey-Fuller and Phillips and Perron tests. The results indicate that the hypothesis that the variables are integrated of order one cannot be rejected.
19 An impressive reform agenda is planned
economic changes wrought by this ongoing transformation will no doubt pose many challenges—both to China itself and to itstradingpartnercountries—the potential benefits could be substantial for those countries that position themselves to take advantage of such changes. And, as China assumes a central place in the world economy, its growth and stability will become increasingly important to the world trading system at large.
Eswar Prasad and Thomas Rumbaugh are, respectively, the Division Chief and Deputy Division Chief of the China Division in the IMF’s Asia and
was lower than in itstradingpartnercountries during the 1970-2000 period, the differential narrowed substantially over time ( Table 2 ). Indeed, during 1992-2000, a period that includes the most recent economic expansion, U.S. growth was ½ percentage point higher than in partner countries. Meanwhile, the real effective exchange rate, notwithstanding marked fluctuations in specific years, has not exhibited a long-term trend.
United States and Trading Partners: Real GDP Growth
(average, in percent)
leave much space for further fiscal consolidation at this time. On the other hand, attempts to stem nominal appreciation through systematic intervention would likely be ineffective over time. 23 Unsterilized foreign exchange purchases would ultimately push up the inflation differential between Haiti and itstradingpartnercountries, and thus not prevent REER appreciation. Sterilized intervention would be very costly. However, the authorities could strengthen their monetary policy instruments and regime, to ensure that monetary programs are implemented as planned and
relative to itstradingpartnercountries is used. The variable is expressed in logarithms. The series used are the ones published by the Information Notice System (INS).
Net foreign Assets (nfa t ) positions for each country are calculated by adding up the current account balances. The initial stock of net foreign assets is 1999Q3, as provided by the EDSS. The net foreign assets position is then normalized by the GDP in order to adjust for the size of the economy.
Relative Prices of Non-tradable to Tradable Goods (n t ) are defined as the ratio of the domestic
devalued on two separate occasions (June 29 and October 6) by a cumulative amount of 33 percent against the U.S. dollar (intervention currency), which led to large depreciations in nominal and real effective terms. Since the devaluations, the nominal effective exchange rate remained relatively flat, while the real effective exchange rate appreciated by about 15 percent through 1993, as a result of higher inflation in Fiji than that of itstradingpartnercountries. Since mid-1994, relatively low domestic inflation has reversed the trend appreciation in Fiji’s real
Jan Gottschalk, Carl Miller, Lanieta Rauqeuqe, Isoa Wainiqolo, Yongzheng Yang, and Mr. Markus Rodlauer
export volumes to a change in relative prices, will also form a critical component of Fiji’s tourism demand equation.
Typically, the level of aggregate real demand in trading partner countries, weighted by their respective trade shares, are positively related to income levels. In contrast, export demand depends negatively on the relative price variable that compares the home country’s export price to prices of a similar product in itstradingpartnercountries, with both prices expressed in the same currency. Since the primary focus is price competitiveness amongst