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Valentina Flamini and Mauricio Soto
Following a benchmarking exercise, we estimate the spending required to reach satisfactory progress in the Sustainable Development Goals in the health, education, and infrastructure sectors in Brazil. We find that there is room for savings in education (up to 1.5 percentage point of GDP) and health (up to 2.5 percentage points of GDP) without compromising the quality of services but additional investments for over 3 percent of GDP per year are needed to close large infrastructure gaps in roads, water, and electricity by 2030. Brazil can do more with less, but increasing efficiency of public spending will require substantial reforms.
Valentina Flamini and Mauricio Soto

7. Health Expenditure 8. Health Expenditure Distribution and Efficiency 9. Capital Stock and Quality of Infrastructure 10. Public and Total Gross Fixed Capital Formation 11. Adequacy of Roads, Electricity, and Water Infrastructure 12. Infrastructure SDG Cost Estimates 13. Total SDG Cost Estimates TABLES 1. Cost Estimates for Education 2. Cost Estimates for Health 3. Cost Estimates for Roads 4. Cost Estimates for Electricity 5. Cost Estimates for Water

Valentina Flamini, Mauricio Soto, and Mr. Antonio Spilimbergo

economies). On the other hand, Brazil’s spending needs on electricity and water are marginally lower than in other emerging peer countries. The total spending in infrastructure compares to 7.1 percent of GDP in low income and developing countries, and 0.3 percent of GDP in advanced economies ( Figure 12 ). Figure 12. Infrastructure SDG Cost Estimates (Percent of GDP) Sources: IMF staff estimates The total cost of delivering education, health, roads, power, and sanitation to a growing Brazilian population, is lower than in other emerging economies . In