Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 28 items for :

  • "Environmental Kuznets Curve" x
Clear All
Gail Cohen, João Tovar Jalles, Mr. Prakash Loungani, and Ricardo Marto
For the world's 20 largest emitters, we use a simple trend/cycle decomposition to provide evidence of decoupling between greenhouse gas emissions and output in richer nations, particularly in European countries, but not yet in emerging markets. If consumption-based emissions—measures that account for countries' net emissions embodied in cross-border trade—are used, the evidence for decoupling in the richer economies gets weaker. Countries with underlying policy frameworks more supportive of renewable energy and climate change mitigation efforts tend to show greater decoupling between trend emissions and trend GDP, and for both production- and consumption-based emissions. The relationship between trend emissions and trend GDP has also become much weaker in the last two decades than in preceding decades.
Gail Cohen, João Tovar Jalles, Mr. Prakash Loungani, and Ricardo Marto
Recent discussions of the extent of decoupling between greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and real gross domestic product (GDP) provide mixed evidence and have generated much debate. We show that to get a clear picture of decoupling it is important to distinguish cycles from trends: there is an Environmental Okun's Law (a cyclical relationship between emissions and real GDP) that often obscures the trend relationship between emissions and real GDP. We show that, once the cyclical relationship is accounted for, the trends show evidence of decoupling in richer nations—particularly in European countries, but not yet in emerging markets. The picture changes somewhat, however, if we take into consideration the effects of international trade, that is, if we distinguish between production-based and consumption-based emissions. Once we add in their net emission transfers, the evidence for decoupling among the richer countries gets weaker. The good news is that countries with underlying policy frameworks more supportive of renewable energy and supportive of climate change tend to have greater decoupling between trend emissions and trend GDP, and for both production- and consumption-based emissions.
Gail Cohen, João Tovar Jalles, Mr. Prakash Loungani, and Ricardo Marto

short run: The rate and sources of economic growth matter ,” Global Environmental Change , 31 , 109 – 21 . 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.04.012 4. Brown , S. PA , and I. K. McDonough ( 2016 ), “ Using the Environmental Kuznets Curve to evaluate energy policy: Some practical considerations .” Energy Policy , 98 , 453 – 458 . 10.1016/j.enpol.2016.09.020 5. Cohen , G. , Jalles , J. T. , Loungani , P. , Marto , R. Wang , G. ( 2018 ), “ Decoupling of Emissions and GDP : Evidence from Aggregate and Provincial Chinese Data, forthcoming IMF Working

Gail Cohen, João Tovar Jalles, Mr. Prakash Loungani, and Ricardo Marto

References Aichele , R. and G. Felbermayr , 2012 , “ Kyoto and the carbon footprint of nations, ” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management , 63 ( 3 ), 336 – 354 . 10.1016/j.jeem.2011.10.005 Akbostanci E. , Turut-Asik S. , and G. Dpek-Tunc , 2009 , “ The relationship between income and environment in Turkey: Is there an environmental Kuznets curve?, ” Energy Policy , 37 , 861 – 867 . 10.1016/j.enpol.2008.09.088 Ang , J.B. , 2007 , “ CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France, ” Energy

Gail Cohen, João Tovar Jalles, Mr. Prakash Loungani, Ricardo Marto, and Gewei Wang

, Credit and Banking , 29 ( 1 ), 1 – 16 . 10.2307/2953682 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) , 2006 , IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories . Jakob , M. , Haller , M. , and R. Marschinski , 2012 , “ Will history repeat itself? Economic convergence and convergence in energy use patterns ,” Energy Economics , 34 , 95 – 104 . 10.1016/j.eneco.2011.07.008 Kearsley , A. and M. Riddel , 2010 , “ A further inquiry into the Pollution Haven Hypothesis and the Environmental Kuznets Curve ,” Ecological Economics

Ms. Evridiki Tsounta and Anayochukwu Osueke

Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos ). Stampini , M. , and L. Tornarolli , 2012 , “ The Growth of Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America and the Caribbean: Did They Go Too Far? ” Policy Note IDB-DB-185 , ( Washington , Inter-American Development Bank ). Stern , D.I. , 2004 , “ The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve, ” World Development , Vol. 32 , No. 8 , pp. 1419 – 39 . 10.1016/j.worlddev.2004.03.004 Trujillo , L. and S. Villafañe ( 2011 ), “ Factores asociados a la dinámica distributiva: una

Mr. Muthukumara Mani and Mr. Per G. Fredriksson

Environmental Kuznets Curve Revisited ,” Journal of Development Economics 62 ( 2 ), 445 - 76 . 10.1016/S0304-3878(00)00092-4 Heyes , A. and B. Dijkstra ( 2001 ), “ Interest Groups and the Demand for Environmental Policy ”, in T. Tietenberg and H. Folmer , eds. , International Yearbook of Environmental and Resource Economics 2001/2002, 2001 , Edward Elgar , Cheltenham . Hobbes , T. ( 1651 ), Leviathan , ed. by C.B. Macpherson , London : Penguin Classics , 1986 . Kahn , M.E. and J.G. Matsusaka ( 1997 ), “ Demand for

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

, “Debt Relief and Public Health Spending in Heavily Indebted Countries,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol . 80 (February 2002), pp. 151–57; and Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, “Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: The Environmental Kuznets Curve Revisited,” Journal of Development Economics , Vol. 62 (August 2000), pp. 445–76. 7 Ke-young Chu, Hamid Davoodi, and Sanjeev Gupta, “Income Distribution and Tax and Government Social Spending Policies in Developing Countries,” IMF Working Paper 00/62, 2000. 8 George

Luc Eyraud, Ms. Changchang Zhang, Mr. Abdoul A Wane, and Mr. Benedict J. Clements

21st Century (REN21) , 2010 , Renewables 2010—Global Status Report ( Worldwide ). Schlissel , D. , and B. Biewald , 2008 , Nuclear Power Plant Construction Costs ( Cambridge, MA : Synapse Energy Economics, Inc. ). Stern , D. I. , 2004 , “ The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve, ” World Development , Vol. 32 , No. 8 , pp. 1419 – 39 . 10.1016/j.worlddev.2004.03.004 Taylor , M. , 1999 , “ Real Interest Rates and Macroeconomic Activity, ” Oxford Review of Economic Policy , Vol. 15 , No. 2. 10.1093/oxrep/15

Mr. Muthukumara Mani and Mr. Per G. Fredriksson

1573-4412(83)01011-9 Hettige , H. , M. Mani , and D. Wheeler ( 2000 ), “ Industrial Pollution In Economic Development: The Environmental Kuznets Curve Revisited ,” Journal of Development Economics 62 ( 2 ), 445 - 76 . 10.1016/S0304-3878(00)00092-4 International Monetary Fund ( 2000 ), “ Globalization: Threat or Opportunity ,” Issues Brief 2000 , ( Washington : International Monetary Fund ). Kaufmann , D. , A. Kraay , and P. Zoido-Lobaton ( 1999a ), “ Aggregating Governance Indicators ,” Policy Research Working Paper #2195