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International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This paper discusses Togo’s Second Review Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) and Request for Modification of Performance Criteria. Despite the ensuing revenue underperformance, the fiscal position improved significantly as expenditure was curtailed. All continuous and end-December 2017 quantitative performance criteria (QPCs) were met, as well as the structural benchmarks. The indicative target on fiscal revenue was missed by about 2 percent of GDP and the indicative target on social spending was missed by a small margin (0.2 percent of GDP). The IMF staff supports the completion of the second ECF review as well as the modification of end-June 2018 QPCs on the domestic primary balance and net domestic financing and the continuous QPC on nonconcessional external borrowing.
International Monetary Fund
This paper discusses key findings of the Second Review for Ukraine under the Stand-By Arrangement and request for modification of performance criteria. Policy implementation has been broadly in line with the program. The end-May quantitative performance criteria on base money, net international reserves, and the general government balance were met. The authorities made progress in the resolution of systemic problem banks and in preparing associated legislative actions. IMF staff welcomes the recent measures to improve the functioning of the foreign exchange market.
Mr. Jongsoon Shin
This paper describes issues in Korea’s corporate sector, the need for restructuring, and the authorities’ initiatives and challenges. It then identifies lessons from other countries’ experience and conducts an econometric analysis based on cross-country aggregate data, compared with previous studies which mostly use firm-level data. This analysis finds that restructuring episodes, while sometimes challenging in the short term, have typically been associated with more rapid economic growth afterward. Corporate restructuring could have a negative effect on the labor and the financial markets in the short term, but is associated with positive growth through increased investment and capital productivity in the medium term, outpacing the negative effects.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This 2014 Article IV Consultation on the Republic of San Marino highlights global crisis and tense relations with Italy, which triggered a 30 percent GDP contraction since 2008 and a sea change in San Marino’s off-shore banking model. High liquidity in the system allowed banks to withstand the shock to deposits. Cassa di Risparmio della Repubblica di San Marino, the largest bank, has required 13 percent of GDP in public support. The deep recession and bank recapitalization costs are weighing heavily on public finances.
Mr. Mark R. Stone
This paper summarizes some lessons from international experience for corporate debt restructuring in east Asia. Basic principles of debt restructuring are described, the experiences of Mexico, Chile, the United Kingdom, Hungary, and Poland are examined, and general lessons are drawn. The approaches currently being adopted in Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia and Thailand are then reviewed in the context of these lessons.
Mr. Mark R. Stone
This paper summarizes the objectives, tasks, and modalities of large-scale, post-crisis corporate restructuring based on nine recent episodes with a view to organizing the policy choices and drawing some general conclusions. These episodes suggest that government-led restructuring efforts should integrate corporate and bank restructuring in a holistic and transparent strategy based on clearly defined objective and including sunset provisions.
Mr. Daniel Garcia-Macia
High household wealth is often cited as a key strength of the Italian economy. Both in absolute terms and relative to income, the Italian household sector is wealthier than most euro area peers. A sizable fraction of this wealth is held by the rich and upper middle classes. This paper documents the changes in the Italian household sector’s financial wealth over the past two decades, by constructing the matrix of bilateral financial sectoral exposures. Households became increasingly exposed to the financial sector, which in turn was exposed to the highly indebted real and government sectors. The paper then simulates different financial shocks to gauge the ability of the household sector to absorb losses. Simple illustrative calculations are presented for a fall in the value of government bonds as well as for bank bail-ins versus bailouts.