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NIGER

NIGER »

Source: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2000

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 September 2000

ISBN: 9781557758989

Keywords: Annual reports, Exchange arrangements, Exchange restrictions, foreign exchange, foreign currency, direct investment, exchange rate, forward exchange, foreign investment, exchange control

Status Under IMF Articles of Agreement...

Libya

Libya »

Source: Libya : Selected Issues

Volume/Issue: 2013/151

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 31 May 2013

ISBN: 9781484387399

Keywords: prices, electricity, electricity subsidies, electricity tariffs, pricing

The cost of energy subsidies is large, and reduces the fiscal space available for public expenditure priorities, including education, health, and infrastructure. Libya's ample hydrocarbon wealth will allow it to re...

IMF lending: HIPC debt relief

IMF lending: HIPC debt relief »

Source: IMF Survey, Volume 34, Issue 19

Volume/Issue: 34/19

Series: IMF Survey

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 October 2005

ISBN: 9781451938951

Keywords: international monetary fund, central bank, world trade, economic developments

The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen...

Military Expenditure

Military Expenditure »

Source: Military Expenditure : International Comparison of Trends

Volume/Issue: 1991/54

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Daniel Hewitt

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1991

ISBN: 9781451847420

Keywords: military, military expenditures, expenditures, expenditure, military expenditure

This paper analyzes trends in world military expenditure by examining the shares of different country groups and the ratio to GDP of individual nations. The coverage is military expenditures in 125 countries from 1...

Military Expenditure

Military Expenditure »

Source: Military Expenditure : Econometric Testing of Economic and Political Influences

Volume/Issue: 1991/53

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Daniel Hewitt

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 1991

ISBN: 9781451847291

Keywords: military, military expenditures, expenditures, expenditure, military expenditure

Econometric results from an analysis of the determinants of military expenditure in 125 countries during 1972-88 are presented. The dependent variable is the ratio of military expenditure to GDP; included among the...

The Euro and the Production Structure and Export Performance of Middle East and North African Countries

The Euro and the Production Structure and Export Performance of Middle East and North African Countries »

Source: The Euro and the Production Structure and Export Performance of Middle East and North African Countries

Volume/Issue: 1999/12

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jean-François Ruhashyankiko

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1999

ISBN: 9781451842883

Keywords: euro, exchange rate, production structure, export performance, equation, standard errors, statistics, correlation

This paper explores the link between exchange rate volatility of European currencies and economic performance of several countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The elimination of intra euro-zone exch...

Export Instability and the External Balance in Developing Countries

Export Instability and the External Balance in Developing Countries »

Source: Export Instability and the External Balance in Developing Countries

Volume/Issue: 1994/8

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , and Jonathan Ostry

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1994

ISBN: 9781451927726

Keywords: export earnings, exporters, capital markets, international capital markets, fuel exporters

Uncertainty about the export earnings accruing to a country (sometimes referred to as export instability) is an important source of macroeconomic uncertainty in many developing countries. Theory predicts that count...

Bank Recycling of Petro Dollars to Emerging Market Economies During the Current Oil Price Boom

Bank Recycling of Petro Dollars to Emerging Market Economies During the Current Oil Price Boom »

Source: Bank Recycling of Petro Dollars to Emerging Market Economies During the Current Oil Price Boom

Volume/Issue: 2008/180

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Johannes Wiegand

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2008

ISBN: 9781451870381

Keywords: Petro dollars, oil exporters, bank lending, exporters, oil exporting, oil exporting countries, oil exporter,

High oil prices have once again led to large external surpluses of oil exporting countries, similar to the 1970s and 1980s. This paper analyzes the extent to which (i) oil exporters use bank deposits to invest thes...

Is Islamic Banking Good for Growth?

Is Islamic Banking Good for Growth? »

Source: Is Islamic Banking Good for Growth?

Volume/Issue: 2015/81

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Patrick Imam , and Kangni Kpodar

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 April 2015

ISBN: 9781475569285

Keywords: financial development, banks, banking, finance, bank, General,

The rapid growth of Islamic banking has attracted much attention lately in the economic literature. At the same time, a mature body of the literature has shown that financial development is broadly conducive to eco...

The Value-Added Tax

The Value-Added Tax »

Source: The Value-Added Tax : Its Causes and Consequences

Volume/Issue: 2007/183

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Ben Lockwood , and Michael Keen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2007

ISBN: 9781451867473

Keywords: vat, tax ratio, taxation, tax system, Value-added Tax, Tax Reform,

Has the VAT proved, as its proponents claim, an especially effective form of taxation? To address this, this paper first shows that a tax innovation-such as the introduction of a VAT- reduces the marginal cost of p...