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Monetary Concepts and Definitions

Monetary Concepts and Definitions »

Source: Monetary Concepts and Definitions

Volume/Issue: 1989/92

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 1989

ISBN: 9781451951387

Keywords: savings deposits, money market, bonds, central bank, monetary aggregates

This paper examines monetary concepts and definitions. It notes that approaches to monetary analysis, and the concept of money itself, have been undergoing substantial change in many countries due in large part to...

Access to Market Financing for IDA-eligible Countries-the Role of External Debt and IMF-Supported Programs

Access to Market Financing for IDA-eligible Countries-the Role of External Debt and IMF-Supported Programs »

Source: Access to Market Financing for IDA-eligible Countries-the Role of External Debt and IMF-Supported Programs

Volume/Issue: 2009/217

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alun Thomas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2009

ISBN: 9781451873641

Keywords: decision point, enhanced HIPC Initiative, IMF-supported program, debt ratio, debt service, debt ratios, concessional debt,

Exclusion restrictions used to identify demand and supply relationships for market financing among IDA recipients (past and present) show that poor credit ratings and high political instability adversely impact the...

International Reserves in Low Income Countries

International Reserves in Low Income Countries »

Source: International Reserves in Low Income Countries : Have they Served As Buffers?

Volume/Issue: 2012/7

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

ISBN: 9781463930561

Keywords: Reserve adequacy, exogenous shocks, terms of trade, current account, reserve holdings, exchange rate regime,

This paper provides a historical perspective on the role of international reserves in low-income countries as a cushion against large external shocks over the last three decades - including the current global crisi...

Tax Revenue and (or?) Trade Liberalization

Tax Revenue and (or?) Trade Liberalization »

Source: Tax Revenue and (or?) Trade Liberalization

Volume/Issue: 2005/112

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Michael Keen , and Thomas Baunsgaard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2005

ISBN: 9781451861310

Keywords: Tax reform, tax revenues, tax revenue, trade taxes, domestic tax, trade reform,

With the public finances of many developing and emerging market countries still heavily dependent on trade tax revenues, further trade liberalization may be hindered unless they are able to develop alternative sour...

Is Social Spending Procyclical?1

Is Social Spending Procyclical?1 »

Source: Is Social Spending Procyclical?

Volume/Issue: 2010/234

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Alejandro Hajdenberg , and Javier Arze del Granado

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2010

ISBN: 9781455209347

Keywords: social spending, expenditures, health expenditures, public expenditures, total expenditures,

This paper studies the cyclical behavior of public spending on health and education in 150 countries during 1987 - 2007. It finds that spending on education and health is procyclical in developing countries and acy...

Issues of Openness and Flexibility for Foreign Exchange Systems*

Issues of Openness and Flexibility for Foreign Exchange Systems* »

Source: Issues of Openness and Flexibility for Foreign Exchange Systems

Volume/Issue: 1989/3

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1989

ISBN: 9781451930559

Keywords: exchange rate, foreign exchange, exchange rate regimes, exchange rates, exchange rate regime

This paper surveys briefly the main issues for official management of foreign exchange, including the choice of exchange rate regime and exchange and trade restrictive systems. It concludes by identifying the main...

An Econometric Study of Primary Commodity Exports from Developing Country Regions to the World

An Econometric Study of Primary Commodity Exports from Developing Country Regions to the World »

Source: IMF Staff papers : Volume 34 No. 2

Volume: 34

Series: IMF Staff Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1987

ISBN: 9781451946987

Keywords: commodity, export, commodity exports, primary commodity, food exports

This paper studies the flow of primary commodity exports from non-oil exporting developing countries grouped by geographical region. The first part analyzes the changes in the structure of developing country commod...

The Macroeconomic Effects of ESAF-Supported Programs

The Macroeconomic Effects of ESAF-Supported Programs »

Source: The Macroeconomic Effects of ESAF-Supported Programs : Revisiting Some Methodological Issues

Volume/Issue: 1995/92

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Susan Schadler , Louis Dicks-Mireaux , and Mauro Mecagni

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 1995

ISBN: 9781451951486

Keywords: equation, debt service, standard errors, external debt, statistics

This paper examines whether ESAF-supported programs during 1986-91 had significant independent effects on growth, inflation and the external debt service ratio. Econometric estimates of the Generalized Evaluation E...

Words vs. Deeds

Words vs. Deeds »

Source: Words vs. Deeds : What Really Matters?

Volume/Issue: 2011/112

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Mahvash Qureshi , Atish Ghosh , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2011

ISBN: 9781455261413

Keywords: policy credibility, exchange rate, exchange rate regime, central bank, inflation performance, Open Economy Macroeconomics,

This paper revisits the link between the nominal exchange rate regime and inflation, based on a sample of 145 emerging market and developing countries (EMDCs) over the period 1980-2010. We contend that, just as a d...

Classifications of Countries Basedon their Level of Development

Classifications of Countries Basedon their Level of Development »

Source: Classifications of Countries Basedon their Level of Development : How it is Done and How it Could Be Done

Volume/Issue: 2011/31

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Lynge Nielsen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2011

ISBN: 9781455216789

Keywords: Country classification systems, taxonomy, taxonomies, per capita income, balance of payments, exporting countries, Economic Development: General,

The paper analyzes how the UNDP, the World Bank, and the IMF classify countries based on their level of development. These systems are found lacking in clarity with regard to their underlying rationale. The paper a...