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Social Incidence of the General Sales Tax in Pakistan

Social Incidence of the General Sales Tax in Pakistan »

Source: Social Incidence of the General Sales Tax in Pakistan

Volume/Issue: 2003/216

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Saadia Refaqat

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2003

ISBN: 9781451875102

Keywords: social incidence, general sales tax, current income, lifetime income, incidence analysis, total consumption,

This paper analyses the social incidence of the general sales tax (GST) in Pakistan. The main finding of the study is that contrary to widespread perception, the social incidence of the GST in Pakistan is slightly...

Macroeconomic Policies and Poverty Reduction

Macroeconomic Policies and Poverty Reduction »

Source: Macroeconomic Policies and Poverty Reduction : Stylized Facts and an Overview of Research

Volume/Issue: 2001/135

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Paul Cashin , Catherine Pattillo , Ratna Sahay , and Paolo Mauro

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2001

ISBN: 9781451855708

Keywords: Macroeconomic policies, trade liberalization, distribution of income, external debt, per capita income, Open Economy Macroeconomics, Measurement and Analysis of Poverty, Comparative Studies of Countries,

This paper provides a brief and selective overview of research on the links between macroeconomic policies and poverty reduction. Using the Human Development Index as a measure of well-being, the progress made by 1...

Do Some Forms of Financial Flows Help Protect From Sudden Stops?

Do Some Forms of Financial Flows Help Protect From Sudden Stops? »

Source: Do Some Forms of Financial Flows Help Protect From Sudden Stops?

Volume/Issue: 2006/202

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Paolo Mauro , and Andrei Levchenko

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2006

ISBN: 9781451864625

Keywords: crises, financial flows, fdi, direct investment, foreign investors, International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions, Financial Aspects of Economic Integration,

There is a debate on whether some forms of financial flows offer better crisis protection than others. Using a large panel of advanced, emerging, and developing countries during 1970-2003, this paper analyzes the b...

Enforcement and the Stability and Growth Pact

Enforcement and the Stability and Growth Pact »

Source: Enforcement and the Stability and Growth Pact : How Fiscal Policy Did and Did Not Change Under Europe's Fiscal Framework

Volume/Issue: 2006/116

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Anthony Annett

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 May 2006

ISBN: 9781451863765

Keywords: enforcement, fiscal governance, fiscal framework, fiscal performance, fiscal rules, National Deficit Surplus,

The Stability and Growth Pact has been a success in numerous EU countries, especially in guiding them toward underlying fiscal balance ahead of population aging. These countries tend to be smaller, subject to great...

Aggregate Investment Expenditures on Tradable and Nontradable Goods

Aggregate Investment Expenditures on Tradable and Nontradable Goods »

Source: Aggregate Investment Expenditures on Tradable and Nontradable Goods

Volume/Issue: 2008/45

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rudolfs Bems

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2008

ISBN: 9781451869071

Keywords: tradable and nontradable goods, expenditure, expenditures, investment expenditures, input-output, expenditure share,

This paper shows that aggregate investment expenditure shares on tradable and nontradable goods are very similar across countries and regions. Furthermore, the two expenditure shares have remained close to constant...

Quality of Government and Living Standards

Quality of Government and Living Standards »

Source: Quality of Government and Living Standards : Adjusting for the Efficiency of Public Spending

Volume/Issue: 2012/182

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Francesco Grigoli , and Eduardo Ley

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 July 2012

ISBN: 9781475505306

Keywords: System of National Accounts, Efficiency, Living Standards, national accounts, public spending, input-output, health care, Publicly Provided Goods: General, Public Economics: Miscellaneous Issues: General, Social Security and Public Pensions

It is generally acknowledged that the government's output is difficult to define and its value is hard to measure. The practical solution, adopted by national accounts systems, is to equate output to input costs. H...