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Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616354121.084

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

Low-income countries routinely experience exogenous disturbances—sharp swings in the terms of trade, export demand, natural disasters, and volatile financial flows—that contribute to higher volatility...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2004

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2004 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063365.012

ISBN: 9781589063365

Keywords: Annual reports, Exchange restrictions, Exchange arrangements, foreign exchange, payments, foreign currency, credit, direct investment, shares, purchases

This 2004 Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions provides a detailed description of the exchange arrangements and exchange/trade restrictions of individual IMF member countries and Hong Ko...

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2003

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 2003 »

Series: Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062184.012

ISBN: 9781589062184

Keywords: Annual reports, Exchange arrangements, Exchange restrictions, foreign exchange, payments, foreign currency, credit, direct investment, shares, purchases

This 2003 Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions provides a detailed description of the exchange arrangements and exchange/trade restrictions of individual IMF member countries and Hong Ko...

International Reserves in Low Income Countries

International Reserves in Low Income Countries »

Source: International Reserves in Low Income Countries : Have they Served As Buffers?

Volume/Issue: 2012/7

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2012

ISBN: 9781463930561

Keywords: Reserve adequacy, exogenous shocks, terms of trade, current account, reserve holdings, exchange rate regime,

This paper provides a historical perspective on the role of international reserves in low-income countries as a cushion against large external shocks over the last three decades - including the current global crisi...

Where Did All the Aid Go? An Empirical Analysis of Absorption and Spending1

Where Did All the Aid Go? An Empirical Analysis of Absorption and Spending1 »

Source: Where Did All the Aid Go? An Empirical Analysis of Absorption and Spending

Volume/Issue: 2008/34

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Shekhar Aiyar , and Ummul Hasanath Ruthbah

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2008

ISBN: 9781451868968

Keywords: Spending, Absorption, Growth, current account balance, reserve accumulation, current account, capital formation, central bank,

This paper examines the macroeconomic usage of aid using panel data for a broad sample of aid-recipients. By definition an increase in aid must go toward a reduction in the current account balance (absorbed aid), a...

Appendix 1: Data Sources and Definitions: Event Study Analysis

Appendix 1: Data Sources and Definitions: Event Study Analysis »

Source: Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

The event study analysis is based on a panel of 71 LICs (Table A1.1). The sample period spans from 1980 to 2007 for the analysis of past shock episodes and from 2007 to 2010 for the...

Appendix 2: Robustness Analysis

Appendix 2: Robustness Analysis »

Source: Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

This appendix provides a robustness check for the event study analysis using alternative definitions of shocks and related losses. In particular, shocks were redefined in terms of a...

Appendix 3: Data and Robustness Analysis of Optimal Reserves

Appendix 3: Data and Robustness Analysis of Optimal Reserves »

Source: Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

This appendix discusses data sources for the regressions reported in Chapter 5, as well as the calibration exercise in Chapter 6, and reports robustness checks for the regression re...

1. Introduction

1. Introduction »

Source: Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

Low-income countries (LICs) are routinely faced with a wide range of exogenous disturbances—sharp swings in the terms of trade and export demand, natural disasters, and volatile financial flows—and the resul...

2. External Shocks and Macroeconomic Performance

2. External Shocks and Macroeconomic Performance »

Source: Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

Macroeconomic volatility in LICs reflects a high frequency of exogenous shocks. Real external shocks and natural disasters are more frequent in LICs compared with advanced and emerging market countries. An a...