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Relationship between CO2, fuel and electricity prices and the effect on Green House Gas (GHG) emissions in Nordic countries

Relationship between CO2, fuel and electricity prices and the effect on Green House Gas (GHG) emissions in Nordic countries »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2008

ISBN: 9789289316781

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Union Emissions Trading Scheme, Modelling and Forecasts, Market Fundamentals, Carbon Price Forecaster Model, Nordic Power Model, NordPool System Prices

The European Union emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) has rea-ched the end of the first phase (2005 to 2007) and the market has moved on to the next phase, which runs from 2008 to 2012. This report is divided into t...

Monetary Policy and Inflation Indicators for Finland

Monetary Policy and Inflation Indicators for Finland »

Source: Monetary Policy and Inflation Indicators for Finland

Volume/Issue: 1995/115

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Martin Mühleisen

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 1995

ISBN: 9781451942910

Keywords: gdp deflator, monetary conditions, inflation forecasts

The IMF Working Papers series is designed to make IMF staff research available to a wide audience. Almost 300 Working Papers are released each year, covering a wide range of theoretical and analytical topics, inclu...

Measuring a Roller Coaster

Measuring a Roller Coaster »

Source: Measuring a Roller Coaster : Evidenceon the Finnish Output Gap

Volume/Issue: 2004/57

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andreas Billmeier

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 April 2004

ISBN: 9781451847802

Keywords: output gap, inflation forecasting, unemployment, unemployment rate, forecasting, statistics, rate of unemployment, Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles: Forecasting and Simulation,

The output gap-which measures the deviation of actual output from its potential-is frequently used as an indicator of slack in an economy. This paper estimates the Finnish output gap using various empirical methods...

Ghostbusting

Ghostbusting »

Source: Ghostbusting : Which Output Gap Measure Really Matters?

Volume/Issue: 2004/146

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andreas Billmeier

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 August 2004

ISBN: 9781451856675

Keywords: Output gap, inflation forecasting, forecasting, statistics, statistic, inflationary pressures, Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles: Forecasting and Simulation,

This paper investigates various output gap measures in a simple inflation forecasting framework. Reflecting the cyclical position of an economy, an (unobservable) output gap has important implications for economic...

Strengthening Post-Crisis Fiscal Credibility: Fiscal Councils on the Rise — A New Dataset

Strengthening Post-Crisis Fiscal Credibility: Fiscal Councils on the Rise — A New Dataset »

Source: Strengthening Post-Crisis Fiscal Credibility : Fiscal Councils on the Rise - A New Dataset

Volume/Issue: 2014/58

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Xavier Debrun , and Tidiane Kinda

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 April 2014

ISBN: 9781475516135

Keywords: Credibility of fiscal policy, fiscal councils, forecast errors, fiscal council, fiscal institutions,

Institutions aimed at constraining policy discretion to promote sound fiscal policies are once again at the forefront of the policy debate. Interest in 'fiscal councils,' independent watchdogs active in the public...

Spillovers in the Nordic Countries

Spillovers in the Nordic Countries »

Source: Spillovers in the Nordic Countries

Volume/Issue: 2015/70

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Borislava Mircheva , and Dirk Muir

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 March 2015

ISBN: 9781475554106

Keywords: dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models, Nordic countries, gdp, demand, consumption, real gdp, investment, Forecasting and Simulation, Monetary Policy (Targets, Instruments

Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden form a tightly integrated region which has strong ties with the euro area as well as some exposure to Russia. Using the IMF's Global Integrated Monetary and Fiscal model (GIMF...

Fundamentals-Based Estimation of Default Probabilities - A Survey1

Fundamentals-Based Estimation of Default Probabilities - A Survey1 »

Source: Fundamentals-Based Estimation of Default Probabilities - A Survey

Volume/Issue: 2006/149

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jorge Chan-Lau

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2006

ISBN: 9781451864090

Keywords: Default probabilities, scoring models, ratings models, probabilities, probability, banking, forecasting, bankrupt, Forecasting and Other Model Applications, Financial Economics: General

This survey reviews a number of different fundamentals-based models for estimating default probabilities for firms and/or industries, and illustrates them with real applications by practitioners and policy making i...

Uncovered Interest Parity in Crisis

Uncovered Interest Parity in Crisis »

Source: Uncovered Interest Parity in Crisis : The Interest Rate Defense in the 1990s

Volume/Issue: 2001/207

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Andrew Rose , and Robert Flood

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2001

ISBN: 9781451874655

Keywords: empirical, exchange rate, fixed, floating, developing, developed, exchange rate changes, exchange rates, standard errors, forecasting,

This paper tests for uncovered interest parity (UIP) using daily data for 23 developing and developed countries through the crisis-strewn 1990s. We find that UIP works better on average in the 1990s than in previou...

Finland's Public Sector Balance Sheet

Finland's Public Sector Balance Sheet »

Source: Finland's Public Sector Balance Sheet : A Novel Approach to Analysis of Public Finance

Volume/Issue: 2018/78

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Maren Brede , and Christian Henn

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 April 2018

ISBN: 9781484349885

Keywords: Finland, Debt sustainability, Europe, Public Sector Balance Sheet, Intertemporal Fiscal Balances, General, Social Security and Public Pensions, Forecasts of Budgets, Deficits, and Debt

We construct a comprehensive public sector balance sheet for Finland from 2000 to 2016 by complementing general government statistics with data on public corporations and public pensions. We show that exposure to v...

Financial Crises in DSGE Models: A Prototype Model

Financial Crises in DSGE Models: A Prototype Model »

Source: Financial Crises in DSGE Models : A Prototype Model

Volume/Issue: 2014/57

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jaromir Benes , Michael Kumhof , and Douglas Laxton

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 April 2014

ISBN: 9781475540895

Keywords: lending boom, credit crunch, financialy cycle, asset price bubble, bank capital, bank balance sheets, bank deposits, banking, Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, Forecasting and Simulation,

This paper presents the theoretical structure of MAPMOD, a new IMF model designed to study vulnerabilities associated with excessive credit expansions, and to support macroprudential policy analysis. In MAPMOD, ban...