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Regional Economic Outlook, October 2011, Western Hemisphere
			: Shifting Winds, New Policy Challenges

Regional Economic Outlook, October 2011, Western Hemisphere : Shifting Winds, New Policy Challenges »

Series: Regional Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 November 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616351304.086

ISBN: 9781616351304

Keywords: terms of trade, commodity prices, inflation, terms of trade shocks, fiscal consolidation

Despite the recent deterioration in the global economic environment, projections for the region involve only a modest worsening of the outlook. The October 2011 Regional Economic Outlook: Western Hemisphere caution...

Rapid Current Account Adjustments

Rapid Current Account Adjustments »

Source: Rapid Current Account Adjustments : Are Microstates Different?

Volume/Issue: 2008/233

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Patrick Imam

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2008

ISBN: 9781451870916

Keywords: Terms of trade shocks, microstates, terms of trade, trade shocks, terms of trade shock, trade shock,

We describe unique aspects of microstates-they are less diversified, suffer from lumpiness of investment, they are geographically at the periphery and prone to natural disasters, and have less access to capital mar...

World Economic Outlook, January 1993

World Economic Outlook, January 1993 »

Series: World Economic Outlook

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1992

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451939149.081

ISBN: 9781451939149

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, monetary conditions, terms of trade, monetary fund

This paper highlights that the second part of 1992 has been characterized by flagging consumer and business confidence, weaker-than-expected economic activity-especially in Europe and Japan-and considerable tension...

The Balance of Trade, the Terms of Trade, and the Real Exchange Rate

The Balance of Trade, the Terms of Trade, and the Real Exchange Rate »

Source: The Balance of Trade, the Terms of Trade, and the Real Exchange Rate : An Intertemporal Optimizing Framework

Volume/Issue: 1988/2

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 1988

ISBN: 9781451930924

Keywords: terms of trade, terms of trade shocks, relative price, trade changes, real rate of interest

This paper uses an intertemporal optimizing model of a small open economy to analyze how terms of trade changes affect real exchange rates and the trade balance. We consider temporary current, anticipated future, a...

Foreign Reserve Adequacy in Sub-Saharan Africa

Foreign Reserve Adequacy in Sub-Saharan Africa »

Source: Foreign Reserve Adequacy in Sub-Saharan Africa

Volume/Issue: 2008/150

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 2008

ISBN: 9781451870084

Keywords: Balance of Payments Crises, Terms of Trade and Aid Shocks, terms of trade, terms of trade shock, trade shock, tradable goods, terms of trade shocks,

This paper looks at the question of adequacy of reserves in sub-Saharan African countries in light of the shocks faced by these countries. Literature on optimal reserves so far has not paid attention to the particu...

Terms of Trade Shocks and Economic Recovery

Terms of Trade Shocks and Economic Recovery »

Source: Terms of Trade Shocks and Economic Recovery

Volume/Issue: 2008/36

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Patrick Imam , Eleonara Granziera , and Norbert Funke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 February 2008

ISBN: 9781451868982

Keywords: Growth, terms of trade shocks, trade shocks, trade shock, terms of trade shock,

This paper identifies factors that contribute to a fast recovery in growth after persistent negative terms of trade shocks, using a sample of 159 countries for 1970-2006. The results suggest that policies matter. F...

Private Saving and Terms of Trade Shocks

Private Saving and Terms of Trade Shocks »

Source: Private Saving and Terms of Trade Shocks : Evidence From Developing Countries

Volume/Issue: 1991/100

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , and Carmen Reinhart

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 1991

ISBN: 9781451852318

Keywords: terms of trade, terms of trade shocks, elasticity of substitution, relative price, trade shocks

This paper examines the relationship between temporary terms of trade shocks and household saving in developing countries. It is first shown that, from a theoretical standpoint, this relationship is ambiguous: priv...

What Makes Growth Sustained?

What Makes Growth Sustained? »

Source: What Makes Growth Sustained?

Volume/Issue: 2008/59

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Andrew Berg , and Jeronimo Zettelmeyer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2008

ISBN: 9781451869217

Keywords: Growth, Accelerations, Structural Breaks, terms of trade, inflation, terms of trade shocks, external shocks, trade shocks,

We identify structural breaks in economic growth in 140 countries and use these to define "growth spells:" periods of high growth preceded by an upbreak and ending either with a downbreak or with the end of the sam...

Portugal: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

Portugal: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix »

Source: Portugal : Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

Volume/Issue: 1996/129

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 December 1996

ISBN: 9781451832099

Keywords: inflation, terms of trade, monetary policy, output growth, trade changes

This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix examines Portugal's real convergence experience, and highlights the growth payoff of reform policies in determining the country's rapid growth during most of the...

Portugal: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

Portugal: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix »

Source: Portugal : Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

Volume/Issue: 1996/129

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 December 1996

ISBN: 9781451832099

Keywords: inflation, terms of trade, monetary policy, output growth, trade changes

This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix examines Portugal's real convergence experience, and highlights the growth payoff of reform policies in determining the country's rapid growth during most of the...