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The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

The Euro’s Effecton Trade Imbalances

The Euro’s Effecton Trade Imbalances »

Source: The Euro's Effecton Trade Imbalances

Volume/Issue: 2010/226

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Helge Berger , and Volker Nitsch

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2010

ISBN: 9781455208913

Keywords: imbalances, trade balance, trade surplus, trade deficit, EMU, European integration, exchange rate, trade imbalances, exchange rates, real exchange rate

When does trade become a one-way relationship? We study bilateral trade balances for a sample of 18 European countries over the period from 1948 through 2008. We find that, with the introduction of the euro, trade...

The Euro's Effecton Trade Imbalances

The Euro's Effecton Trade Imbalances »

Volume/Issue: 2010/226

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Helge Berger , and Volker Nitsch

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455208913.001

ISBN: 9781455208913

Keywords: imbalances, trade balance, trade surplus, trade deficit, EMU, European integration, exchange rate, trade imbalances, exchange rates, real exchange rate

When does trade become a one-way relationship? We study bilateral trade balances for a sample of 18 European countries over the period from 1948 through 2008. We find that, with the introduction of the euro, trade...