Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 21 items for :

  • Keyword: Deleveraging x
  • Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services; Biodiversity Conservation; Bioeconomics; Industrial Ecology x
Clear All Modify Search
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

European Community member states now face critical decisions on the design and implementation of monetary policy

CARTER BRANDON

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.

VINOD THOMAS and TAMARA BELT

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.

United Nations, European Commission, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and World Bank

Abstract

5.1 Assets are considered items of value to society. In economics, assets have long been defined as stores of value that, in many situations, also provide inputs to production processes. More recently, there has been consideration of the value inherent in the components of the environment and the inputs the environment provides to society in general and the economy in particular. The term “environmental asset” is used to denote the source of these inputs which may be measured in both physical and monetary terms.

United Nations, European Commission, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and World Bank

Abstract

Comparable and reliable data supporting coherent analytical and policy frameworks are essential elements to inform debates and guide policy related to the interrelationships between the economy and the environment. "The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012—Central Framework" (SEEA Central Framework) is a statistical framework consisting of a comprehensive set of tables and accounts, which guides the compilation of consistent and comparable statistics and indicators for policymaking, analysis and research. It has been produced and is released under the auspices of the United Nations, the European Commission, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank Group. The SEEA-Central Framework reflects the evolving needs of its users, new developments in environmental economic accounting and advances in methodological research.

United Nations, European Commission, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and World Bank

Abstract

3.1 An economy cannot function without using natural resources and other inputs from the environment and using the environment to absorb the unwanted by-products of economic production. Measuring the flows of natural inputs into and releases of residuals from the economy can therefore provide instructive information. This measurement is generally carried out using physical units of measure.

United Nations, European Commission, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and World Bank

Abstract

4.1 An important component of environmental-economic accounting is the recording of transactions in monetary terms between economic units that may be considered environmental. Generally, these transactions concern activity undertaken to preserve and protect the environment. Further, there are a range of transactions, such as taxes and subsidies, that reflect efforts by governments, on behalf of society, to influence the behaviour of producers and consumers with respect to the environment.

United Nations, European Commission, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and World Bank

Abstract

2.1 The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework is a multipurpose conceptual framework for describing the interaction between the economy and the environment, and the stocks and changes in stocks of environmental assets. Utilizing a systems approach to organizing environmental and economic information, it covers, as completely as possible, the stocks and flows that are relevant to the analysis of environmental and economic issues.

United Nations, European Commission, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and World Bank

Abstract

Comparable and reliable data supporting coherent analytical and policy frameworks are essential elements to inform debates and guide policy related to the interrelationships between the economy and the environment. "The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012—Central Framework" (SEEA Central Framework) is a statistical framework consisting of a comprehensive set of tables and accounts, which guides the compilation of consistent and comparable statistics and indicators for policymaking, analysis and research. It has been produced and is released under the auspices of the United Nations, the European Commission, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank Group. The SEEA-Central Framework reflects the evolving needs of its users, new developments in environmental economic accounting and advances in methodological research.

International Monetary Fund
This paper notes that market failure, policy failures, and population pressures are major sources of environmental degradation and that linkages between economic activities and the environment exist at the levels of macroeconomic objectives, macroeconomic policy instruments, implementation of environmental policies, and measurement of economic activity. This paper also points out that fiscal instruments can, and indeed do, play a significant role in resolving environmental problems. In addition, market-based solutions, including pollution permits, also have merit. This paper further points out that implementing environmental policies poses considerable challenges for public policymakers and concludes by suggesting areas for further research.