Gender

 

Title: Women, Work, and Economic Growth: Leveling the Playing Field
Series:
Books
Editor(s):
Kalpana Kochhar, Sonali Jain-Chandra, and Monique Newiak
Publisher:
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
Published Date:
February 2017
DOI:
http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513516103.071
ISBN:
9781513516103 
Women make up a little over half of the world's population, but their contribution to measured economic activity and growth is far below its potential. Despite significant progress in recent decades, labor markets across the world remain divided along gender lines, and progress toward gender equality seems to have stalled. The challenges of growth, job creation, and inclusion are closely intertwined. This volume brings together key research by IMF economists on issues related to gender and macroeconomics. In addition to providing policy prescriptions and case studies from IMF member countries, the chapters also look at the gender gap from an economic point of view.internationalization.

 

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Title: Banking on Women Leaders: A Case for More? 
Series:
IMF Working Papers
Author(s): Ratna Sahay, Martin Cihak, Papa N'Diaye, Adolfo Barajas, Annette Kyobe, Srobona Mitra,  Yen Mooi, and Reza Yousefi 
Publisher:
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
Published Date:
September 2017
DOI:
http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484318164.001
ISBN:
9781484318164
Using a new dataset, we measure the large gap between the representation of men and women in leadership positions in banks and bank supervision agencies worldwide. Women occupied less than 2 percent of bank CEOs positions, and less than 20 percent of the board seats in more than 80 percent of the observations across banks over time. Contrary to common perceptions, many low- and middle-income countries have a higher share of women in bank boards and banking supervision agency boards compared to advanced economies. Econometric analysis suggests that, controlling for relevant bank and country-specific factors, the presence of women as well as a higher share of women on bank boards is associated with greater bank stability, as represented by higher z-scores and lower nonperforming loan ratios. We also examine the share of women on boards of banking supervision agencies by compiling a new dataset. We find that it is associated with greater bank stability. Further research is needed to identify specific mechanisms through which these stability benefits are achieved, and to understand the conditions that have facilitated entry of women into leadership roles in banks and supervision agencies.

 

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Publication cover

 

Title: Women at Work in Latin America and the Caribbean
Series:
IMF Working Papers
Author(s): Natalija Novta, and Joyce Wong
Publisher:
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
Published Date:
February 2017
DOI:
http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475578928.001
ISBN:
9781475578928
Women across the world remain an underutilized resource in the labor force. Participation in the labor force averages around 80 percent for men but only 50 percent for women - nearly half of women's productive potential remains untapped compared to one-fifth for men. Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), as a region, saw the largest gains in female labor force participation (LFP) in the world during the last two decades. Women in LAC are becoming increasingly active in paid work, closing the gap with men and catching up to their counterparts in advanced economies at an impressive rate. In this paper, we document the recent trends in female LFP and female education in the LAC region, discuss the size of potential gains to GDP from increasing female LFP and policies which could be deployed towards this goal.

 

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Publication cover
Title: Women Are Key for Future Growth: Evidence from Canada
Series:
IMF Working Papers
Author(s): Bengt Petersson, Rodrigo Mariscal, and Kotaro Ishi
Publisher:
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
Published Date:
July 2017
DOI:
http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484309247.001
ISBN:
9781484309247

How important are female workers for economic growth? This paper presents empirical evidence that an increase in female labor force participation is positively associated with labor productivity growth. Using panel data for 10 Canadian provinces over 1990-2015, we found that a 1 percentage point increase in the labor force participation among women with high educational attainment would raise Canada's overall labor productivity growth by 0.2 to 0.3 percentage point a year. This suggests that if the current gap of 7 percentage points between male and female labor force participation with high educational attainment were eliminated, the level of real GDP could be about 4 percent higher today. The government has appropriately stepped up its efforts to improve gender equality, as part of its growth strategy. In particular, the government's plan to expand access to affordable child care is a positive step. However, we argue that to maximize the policy outcome given a budget constraint, provision of subsidized child care-including publicly funded child care spaces-should be better targeted to working parents.

 

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Publication cover
Title: Fiscal Policies and Gender Equality
Series:
Books
Editor(s): Lisa Kolovich
Publisher:
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
Published Date:
April 2018
DOI:
http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513590363.071
ISBN:
9781513590363

The International Monetary Fund and other International institutions have focused in recent years on developing a range of approaches to help whittle away at the barriers thet prevent girls and women from achieving their full economic potential. This book is based on a joint research project between the IMF and the United Kingdom's Department for International Development on gender budgeting around the world. It summarizes some of the most prominent gender budgeting efforts in more than 80 countries tried over the last two decades. 

Although the gender gap is shrinking, profress remains uneven across many regions of the world. Gender budgeting allows fiscal authorities to ensure that tax spending and policied address inequality and the advancement of women in areas such as education, health, and economic empowerment. There are still many lessons to be learned in implementing the appropiate government policies and fiscal measures to continue promoting women's development and gender equality.

 

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Title: Western Balkans: Increasing Women's Role in the Economy
Series:
Book IMF Working Papers
Author(s): Ruben Atoyan, and Jesmin Rahman
Publisher:
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
Published Date:
September 2017
DOI:
http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484315569.001
ISBN:
9781484315569

The Western Balkan countries have some of the lowest female labor force participation and employment rates across Europe. Almost two-thirds of working age women in the region are either inactive or unemployed: a huge bite into human capital for a region that endures high emigration and faces declining working age population. The paper uses both macro- and micro-level data  to explore what explains low participation and employment rates among women in the region. Our findings show that improving educational attainment, having a more balanced family leave policy, and reducing tax wedge help improve participation of women in the labor force. However, these measures are not enough to notably improve employability of women, which require stronger growth supported by robust institutions.

 

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Title: Unlocking Female Employment Potential in Europe: Drivers and Benefits
Series:
Departmental Papers / Policy Papers
Author(s): Lone Engbo Christiansen, Huidan Lin, Joana Pereira, Petia Topalova,
and Rima Turk
Publisher:
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
Published Date:
March 2016
DOI:
http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513562513.087
ISBN:
9781513562513
With an aging population and declining productivity growth, Europe faces serious challenges to raising its output growth. Adding to these challenges are the various gender gaps in the labor market. Despite significant progress in recent decades, there are still fewer women than men participating in Europe's labor market, and women are more likely to work part time. Furthermore, a smaller share of women reaches the top rungs of the corporate ladder. Could greater gender equality in the labor market help mitigate the slowdown in Europe's growth potential? Against this backdrop, this paper investigates the drivers of female labor force participation in Europe as well as what effects greater gender diversity in senior corporate positions might have for Europe's economic performance. Reexamining the factors driving women's labor force participation is particularly important because in many European countries the process of closing the gender gap has stalled despite greater gender equality in human capital investment, declining birth rates, changing social norms, and equal legal access to employment opportunities. Investigating whether firm performance could be improved if women held a greater share of senior positions is also essential given that the empirical evidence from past research into this question has been inconclusive.

 

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Publication cover
Title: Catalyst for Change: Empowering Women and Tackling Income Inequality
Series:
Staff Discussion Notes
Author(s): Christian Gonzales, Sonali Jain-Chandra, Kalpana Kochhar, Monique Newiak, and Tlek Zeinullayev
Publisher:
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
Published Date:
October 2015
DOI:
http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513533384.006
ISBN:
9781513533384

This study shows empirically that gender inequality and income inequality are strongly interlinked, even after controlling for standard drivers of income inequality. The study analyzes gender inequality by using and extending the United Nation's Gender Inequality Index (GII) to cover two decades for almost 140 countries,. The main finding is that an increase in the GII from perfect gender equality to perfect inequality is associated with an almost 10 points higher net Gini coefficient. For advanced countries, with higher gender equity in opportunities, income inequality arises mainly through gender gaps in economic participation. For emerging market and developing countries, inequality of opportunity, in particular in education and health, appear to pose larger obstacles to income equality.

 

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