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Mr. Friedrich Schneider and Dominik Enste

Abstract

Examines the role of the shadow, or underground, economy. Looks at ways of measuring it, the relationship between the shadow economy and the main stream economy, why it has been growing in size, and its effects on overall economic growth. How can states limit the size of the shadow economy, and does it matter that it exists?

Mr. Friedrich Schneider and Dominik Enste

Abstract

Examines the role of the shadow, or underground, economy. Looks at ways of measuring it, the relationship between the shadow economy and the main stream economy, why it has been growing in size, and its effects on overall economic growth. How can states limit the size of the shadow economy, and does it matter that it exists?

Mr. Friedrich Schneider and Dominik Enste

Abstract

Examina el papel de la economía sumergida, o economía subterránea. Analiza la forma de medirla, la relación entre la economía sumergida y la economía formal, las razones por las cuales está creciendo en tamaño, y sus efectos en el crecimiento económico general. ¿Cómo pueden los Estados medir la economía sumergida, y es importante su existencia?

Mr. Friedrich Schneider and Dominik Enste

Abstract

Examines the role of the shadow, or underground, economy. Looks at ways of measuring it, the relationship between the shadow economy and the main stream economy, why it has been growing in size, and its effects on overall economic growth. How can states limit the size of the shadow economy, and does it matter that it exists?

Mr. Friedrich Schneider and Dominik Enste

Abstract

Ce document examine le rôle de l'économie de l'ombre, ou économie souterraine. Elle aborde les moyens d'en mesurer l'ampleur, les liens entre l'économie souterraine et l'économie officielle, les raisons de sa croissance, et ses effets sur la croissance économique globale. Comment les États peuvent-ils limiter la taille de l'économie souterraine, et son existence pose-t-elle problème ?

Mr. Friedrich Schneider and Dominik Enste

Abstract

Examines the role of the shadow, or underground, economy. Looks at ways of measuring it, the relationship between the shadow economy and the main stream economy, why it has been growing in size, and its effects on overall economic growth. How can states limit the size of the shadow economy, and does it matter that it exists?

Mr. Matthew J. Slaughter and Mr. Phillip L Swagel

Abstract

Increased globalization - the international integration of markets for goods, technology, labor, and capital - has coincided in the past 20 years with a shift in demand from less-skilled workers to those with more skills. Have imports from developing countries been responsible for the lowered wages of the unskilled, increased unemployment, and widened income inequality in the more advanced countries? This paper finds that a more important influence on labor markets during these years has been a technology-driven shift in labor demand.

Mr. Matthew J. Slaughter and Mr. Phillip L Swagel

Abstract

Globalization—the international integration of goods, technology, labor, and capital—is everywhere to be seen. In any large city in any country, Japanese cars ply the streets, a telephone call can arrange the purchase of equities from a stock exchange half a world away, local businesses could not function without U.S. computers, and foreign nationals have taken over large segments of service industries. Over the past twenty years, foreign trade and the cross-border movement of technology, labor, and capital have been massive and irresistible. During the same period, in the advanced industrial countries, the demand for more-skilled workers has increased at the expense of less-skilled workers, and the income gap between the two groups has grown. There is no doubt that globalization has coincided with higher unemployment among the less skilled and with widening income inequality. But did it cause these phenomena, as many claim, or should we look to other factors, such as advances in technology? This paper seeks to answer that question.

Mr. Friedrich Schneider and Dominik Enste

Abstract

A factory worker has a second job driving an unlicensed taxi at night; a plumber fixes a broken water pipe for a client, gets paid in cash but doesn’t declare his earnings to the tax collector; a drug dealer brokers a sale with a prospective customer on a street corner. These are all examples of the underground or shadow economy—activities, both legal and illegal, that add up to trillions of dollars a year that take place “off the books,” out of the gaze of taxmen and government statisticians.