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Monetary Policy and Bank Risk-Taking

Monetary Policy and Bank Risk-Taking »

Volume/Issue: 2010/9

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Giovanni Dell'Ariccia , Gianni De Nicolo , Luc Laeven , and Fabian Valencia

Publisher: Bank of Communications/New Finance

Publication Date: 29 July 2011

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781463924621.004

ISBN: 9781463924621

Keywords: Bank credit, Credit risk, banking, leverage, risk, bank risk, bank risk taking, bank capital, banking system, inflation

This paper contributes to the current debate on what role financial stability considerations should play in monetary policy decision and how best to integrate macro-prudential and monetary policy frameworks. The pa...

Lifting Euro Area Growth
			: Priorities for Structural Reforms and Governance

Lifting Euro Area Growth : Priorities for Structural Reforms and Governance »

Volume/Issue: 2010/19

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Luc Everaert , and Céline Allard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462302109.004

ISBN: 9781462302109

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Economic growth, Euro Area, Europe, Financial sector, Political economy, Services sector, Labor markets, Labor market reforms, Governance

To live up to its growth potential and secure its inclusive social model, the euro area must make better use of its available labor. In the aftermath of the crisis, boosting growth is essential to prevent unemploym...

Cross-Cutting Themes in Employment Experiences during the Crisis

Cross-Cutting Themes in Employment Experiences during the Crisis »

Volume/Issue: 2010/18

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Athanasios Vamvakidis , Francis Vitek , Mwanza Nkusu , Reginald Darius , Alun Thomas , and Edouard Vidon

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462357604.004

ISBN: 9781462357604

Keywords: Economic recession, Employment, External shocks, Financial crisis, Cross country analysis, Labor market policy, Labor markets, Korea, Republic of, Mexico, New Zealand

The human cost of the recent global crisis is reflected in its impact on the labor market. Explaining why economies with similar downturns had very different employment trends can help design policies to reduce suc...

The Human Cost of Recessions
			: Assessing It, Reducing It

The Human Cost of Recessions : Assessing It, Reducing It »

Volume/Issue: 2010/17

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Mai Dao , and Prakash Loungani

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462308163.004

ISBN: 9781462308163

Keywords: Developed countries, Cross country analysis, Economic recession, Emerging markets, Fiscal consolidation, Recessions, Human capital, Fiscal policy, Monetary policy, Labor markets

Recessions leave scars on the labor market. Over 200 million people across the globe are estimated to be unemployed at present resulting from the Great Recession of 2007-09. We assess the human cost of increased un...

Impact of Regulatory Reforms on Large and Complex Financial Institutions

Impact of Regulatory Reforms on Large and Complex Financial Institutions »

Volume/Issue: 2010/16

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Inci Ötker , and Ceyla Pazarbasioglu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 November 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462345496.004

ISBN: 9781462345496

Keywords: Financial reform, Capital requirements, Basel Core Principles, Bank supervision, Banking, Capital controls, Bank reforms, Bank regulations, Liquidity controls, Basel III

Financial sector reforms are being considered to address the risks posed by large and complex financial institutions (LCFIs). The vast majority of global finance is intermediated by a handful of these institutions...

Shaping the New Financial System

Shaping the New Financial System »

Volume/Issue: 2010/15

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Marina Moretti , Aditya Narain , Laura Kodres , Ceyla Pazarbasioglu , José Vinãls , and Jonathan Fiechter

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455267361.004

ISBN: 9781455267361

Keywords: Financial crisis, Financial risk, Financial markets, Financial stability, Capital markets, Credit risk, Bank reforms, Bank regulations, Bank resolution, Banking sector

Three years after the onset of the global financial crisis, much has been done to reform the global financial system, but there is much left to accomplish. The regulatory reform agenda agreed by G-20 leaders in 200...

Reaching the MDGs
			: An Action Plan for Trade

Reaching the MDGs : An Action Plan for Trade »

Volume/Issue: 2010/14

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Brad McDonald , Rob Gregory , and Katrin Elborgh-Woytek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455265343.004

ISBN: 9781455265343

Keywords: Exports, Export competitiveness, Emerging markets, Developed countries, Low-income developing countries, International trade, Millennium Development Goals, Trade integration, Tax reforms, Trade policy

The actions proposed here focus on trade integration, substantially increasing exports of the poorest countries and helping them to meet the Millennium Development Goals. As the foundation for these ambitions, we e...

Default in Today's Advanced Economies
			: Unnecessary, Undesirable, and Unlikely

Default in Today's Advanced Economies : Unnecessary, Undesirable, and Unlikely »

Volume/Issue: 2010/12

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Carlo Cottarelli , Paolo Mauro , Lorenzo Forni , and Jan Gottschalk

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455261307.004

ISBN: 9781455261307

Keywords: Debt restructuring, Developed countries, Budget deficits, Exchange rate adjustments, Public debt, Public finance, Sovereign debt, Interest rates, Fiscal adjustment, debt

This note summarizes the main arguments put forward by some market commentators who argue that default is inevitable, and presents a rebuttal for each argument in turn. Their main arguments focus on the size of the...

Fiscal Space

Fiscal Space »

Volume/Issue: 2010/11

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Atish Ghosh , Jun Kim , and Mahvash Qureshi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455228010.004

ISBN: 9781455228010

Keywords: Developed countries, Debt management, Public debt, Fiscal sustainability, Fiscal policy, fiscal sustainability, debt dynamics, debt, interest, primary balance

In this note, the authors reexamine the issue of debt sustainability in a large group of advanced economies. Their hypothesis is that, when debt is in a moderate range, its dynamics are sustainable in the sense tha...

Long-Term Trends in Public Finances in the G-7 Economies

Long-Term Trends in Public Finances in the G-7 Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2010/13

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Andrea Schaechter , and Carlo Cottarelli

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455263325.004

ISBN: 9781455263325

Keywords: Fiscal consolidation, Aging, Developed countries, Public finance, Public debt, Global Financial Crisis 2008-2009, Group of seven, Government expenditures, Tax revenues, Taxation

Today's record public debt levels in most advanced economies are not only a direct fall-out from the global crisis. Public debt had ratcheted up over many decades before, when it had been used, in most of the G-7 c...

Redesigning the Contours of the Future Financial System

Redesigning the Contours of the Future Financial System »

Volume/Issue: 2010/10

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Laura Kodres , and Aditya Narain

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 August 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462388882.004

ISBN: 9781462388882

Keywords: Bank supervision, Banks, Financial instruments, Financial institutions, Risk management, Multilateral surveillance, Nonbank financial sector, Global Financial Crisis 2008-2009, Fund role, Crises

This paper explores the private- and public-sector responses to the crisis and some of the probable outcomes. Aside from improved supervision of individual institutions, greater emphasis needs to be put on financia...

Monetary Policy and Bank Risk-Taking

Monetary Policy and Bank Risk-Taking »

Volume/Issue: 2010/09

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Giovanni Dell'Ariccia

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 July 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455253234.004

ISBN: 9781455253234

Keywords: Banks, Asset prices, Monetary policy, Interest rates, Macroprudential Policy, Profits, United States, banking, leverage, risk

This paper contributes to the current debate on what role financial stability considerations should play in monetary policy decision and how best to integrate macro-prudential and monetary policy frameworks. The pa...

The Making of Good Supervision
			: Learning to Say "No"

The Making of Good Supervision : Learning to Say "No" »

Volume/Issue: 2010/08

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Jennifer Elliott , Aditya Narain , Ian Tower , José Vinãls , Pierluigi Bologna , Michael Hsu , and Jonathan Fiechter

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 May 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462310180.004

ISBN: 9781462310180

Keywords: Banks, Basel Core Principles, Bank supervision, Credit risk, Financial sector, Insurance supervision, Global Financial Crisis 2008-2009, Risk management, Securities regulations, Financial Sector Supervision and Regulation

The quality of financial sector supervision has emerged as a key issue from the financial crisis. While most countries operated broadly under the same regulatory standards, differences emerged in supervisory approa...

Trade and the Crisis
			: Protect or Recover

Trade and the Crisis : Protect or Recover »

Volume/Issue: 2010/07

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Mika Saito , Christian Henn , Rob Gregory , and Brad McDonald

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 April 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455251216.004

ISBN: 9781455251216

Keywords: Protectionism, Global Financial Crisis 2008-2009, Trade restrictions, Trade policy, Unemployment, World Trade Organization, Transparency, WTO, trade flows, world trade

The pace of trade reforms waned from the mid-2000s as protectionist sentiment began to increase. With the onset of the global financial crisis, reform progress not only halted but began to reverse. As we show in th...

Financing the Response to Climate Change

Financing the Response to Climate Change »

Volume/Issue: 2010/06

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Catherine Pattillo , and Hugh Bredenkamp

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 March 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462386864.004

ISBN: 9781462386864

Keywords: Climatic changes, Developing countries, Environment, External financing, Resource mobilization, Climate Change, Financing, mitigation, response to climate change, adaptation financing

This note outlines a scheme for mobilizing financing to help developing countries confront the challenges posed by climate change. The idea is to create a 'Green Fund' with the capacity to raise resources on a scal...

Petroleum Product Subsidies
			: Costly, Inequitable, and On the Rise

Petroleum Product Subsidies : Costly, Inequitable, and On the Rise »

Volume/Issue: 2010/05

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): John Piotrowski , David Coady , Justin Tyson , Rolando Ossowski , Robert Gillingham , and Shamsuddin Tareq

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 February 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455239108.004

ISBN: 9781455239108

Keywords: Commodity price fluctuations, Oil exporting countries, Oil product prices, Oil subsidies, Price stabilization, Fiscal reforms, Governance, Taxes, Subsidies, Petroleum products

Petroleum product subsidies have again started to increase with the rebound in international prices. This note reviews recent developments in subsidy levels and argues that reforming the policy framework for settin...

Capital Inflows
			: The Role of Controls

Capital Inflows : The Role of Controls »

Volume/Issue: 2010/04

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Atish Ghosh , Karl Habermeier , Marcos Chamon , Mahvash Qureshi , and Dennis B. S. Reinhardt

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 February 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462347513.004

ISBN: 9781462347513

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Capital controls, Capital inflows, Banking sector, Financial crisis, Exchange rate appreciation, Reserves accumulation, Global Financial Crisis 2008-2009, Fiscal policy, Monetary policy

With the global economy beginning to emerge from the financial crisis, capital is flowing back to emerging market countries (EMEs). These flows, and capital mobility more generally, allow countries with limited sav...

Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy

Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy »

Volume/Issue: 2010/03

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Olivier Blanchard , Giovanni Dell'Ariccia , and Paolo Mauro

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 February 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455224982.004

ISBN: 9781455224982

Keywords: Bank credit, Bank regulations, Bank supervision, Central bank role, Economic policy, Economic stabilization, Financial crisis, Financial intermediation, Fiscal policy, Inflation targeting

The great moderation lulled macroeconomists and policymakers alike in the belief that we knew how to conduct macroeconomic policy. The crisis clearly forces us to question that assessment. In this paper, we review...

Approaches to Corporate Debt Restructuring in the Wake of Financial Crises

Approaches to Corporate Debt Restructuring in the Wake of Financial Crises »

Volume/Issue: 2010/02

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Thomas Laryea

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 January 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462384846.004

ISBN: 9781462384846

Keywords: Corporate sector, Corporate governance, Debt strategy, Debt restructuring, Debt restructuring, Bankruptcy, Banking sector, Bank restructuring, Asset management, Financial crisis

This paper starts from a discussion of the economic case for moderated government intervention in debt restructuring in the nonfinancial corporate sector. It then draws on lessons from past crises to explain three...

U.S. Consumption after the 2008 Crisis

U.S. Consumption after the 2008 Crisis »

Volume/Issue: 2010/01

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Pau Rabanal , and Damiano Sandri

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 January 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455222964.004

ISBN: 9781455222964

Keywords: Financial crisis, Economic models, Consumption, Economic forecasting, Demand, Private consumption, Private savings, Private sector, Global Financial Crisis 2008-2009, Household credit

U.S. household consumption declined sharply in late 2008, marking a departure from the trend of a steady increase in U.S. consumption as a share of income since the 1980s. Combining econometric and simulation analy...

Global Imbalances
			: In Midstream?

Global Imbalances : In Midstream? »

Volume/Issue: 2009/29

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Gian Milesi-Ferretti , and Olivier Blanchard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462333387.004

ISBN: 9781462333387

Keywords: Financial crisis, Capital flows, Asset prices, Current account deficits, Cross country analysis, Capital markets, Private savings, Private investment, Investment, International financial system

This chapter analyses various reasons for global imbalances and ways to tackle these issues. Current account balances reflect a plethora of macroeconomic and financial mechanisms. The overall assessment is that the...

Climate Policy and the Recovery

Climate Policy and the Recovery »

Volume/Issue: 2009/28

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Michael Keen , and Benjamin Jones

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 December 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455220946.004

ISBN: 9781455220946

Keywords: Climatic changes, Climate change, fiscal policy, carbon taxation, emissions trading, fiscal stimulus, emissions, carbon pricing, greenhouse gas, greenhouse gases

Negotiations toward a successor to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change have come to a critical point, and domestic climate policies are being developed, as the world seeks to recover from the deepest economic cris...

The Debate on the International Monetary System

The Debate on the International Monetary System »

Volume/Issue: 2009/26

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Isabelle Mateos y Lago , Rupa Duttagupta , and Rishi Goyal

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 November 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462331369.004

ISBN: 9781462331369

Keywords: International financial system, exchange rate, capital flows, international monetary fund, exchange rates, emerging markets

This paper considers options to address concerns related to functioning of the International Monetary System. Despite its relative stability, the current 'non-system' has the inherent weaknesses of a setup with a d...

Unconventional Choices for Unconventional Times Credit and Quantitative Easing in Advanced Economies

Unconventional Choices for Unconventional Times Credit and Quantitative Easing in Advanced Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2009/27

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Vladimir Klyuev , Phil De Imus , and Krishna Srinivasan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 November 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462382828.004

ISBN: 9781462382828

Keywords: Credit controls, Credit easing, quantitative easing, liquidity, monetary policy, central banks, central bank, balance sheets, interest, financial institutions

This paper examines the unconventional monetary policy actions undertaken by G-7 central banks and assesses their effectiveness in alleviating financial market pressures and facilitating credit flows to the real ec...

The State of Public Finances Cross-Country Fiscal Monitor
			: November 2009

The State of Public Finances Cross-Country Fiscal Monitor : November 2009 »

Volume/Issue: 2009/25

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 November 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462349531.004

ISBN: 9781462349531

Keywords: Fiscal sustainability, Global financial crisis, policy response, fiscal policy, fiscal stimulus, debt sustainability, exit strategies, debt, interest, deficit

This paper highlights the state of Public Finances Cross-Country Fiscal Monitor. This edition of the Cross-Country Fiscal Monitor provides an update of global fiscal developments and policy strategies, based on pro...

Policies to Address Banking Sector Weakness
			: Evolution of Financial Markets and Institutional Indicators

Policies to Address Banking Sector Weakness : Evolution of Financial Markets and Institutional Indicators »

Volume/Issue: 2009/24

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Ivan Guerra , R. B. (Robert Barry) Johnston , Karim Youssef , and Andre Santos

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 October 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455292585.004

ISBN: 9781455292585

Keywords: Banking sector, G20, Support Measures, Financial Markets and Institutions, financial institutions, commercial paper, financial markets, central bank, central banks

This paper reviews the impact of policies to address banking sector weaknesses through the first months of 2009. At the time of this assessment, central bank intervention had successfully addressed pressures on ban...

Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers »

Volume/Issue: 2009/23

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Steven Symansky , and Thomas Baunsgaard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455290567.004

ISBN: 9781455290567

Keywords: Fiscal stability, macroeconomic stabilization, personal income tax, income tax, taxes, fiscal policy, tax rates

This paper discusses how to enhance automatic stabilizers without increasing the size of government. We distinguish between permanent changes in the parameters of the tax and expenditure system (e.g., changes in ta...

A Strategy for Renormalizing Fiscal and Monetary Policies in Advanced Economies

A Strategy for Renormalizing Fiscal and Monetary Policies in Advanced Economies »

Volume/Issue: 2009/22

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Carlo Cottarelli , and José Vinãls

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455278459.004

ISBN: 9781455278459

Keywords: Fiscal policy, Global financial crisis, policy response, fiscal stimulus, fiscal sustainability, debt sustainability, exit strategies, monetary policy, central bank balance sheet, financial sector support

In response to the worst economic crisis since the 1930s, government budgets and central banks have provided substantial support for aggregate demand and for the financial sector. In the process, fiscal balances ha...

The State of Public Finances
			: A Cross-Country Fiscal Monitor

The State of Public Finances : A Cross-Country Fiscal Monitor »

Volume/Issue: 2009/21

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Paolo Mauro , Mark Horton , and Manmohan Kumar

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 July 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455257270.004

ISBN: 9781455257270

Keywords: Emerging markets, Global financial crisis, policy response, fiscal policy, fiscal stimulus, fiscal sustainability, debt sustainability, exit strategies, debt, interest

This paper presents sharp increase in government debt has complicated the management of preexisting challenges from population aging, especially in advanced economies. The increase in debt ratios projected for thes...

The International Financial Crisis and Global Recession
			: Impact on the CEMAC Region and Policy Considerations

The International Financial Crisis and Global Recession : Impact on the CEMAC Region and Policy Considerations »

Volume/Issue: 2009/20

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Dimitre Milkov , Rafael Portillo , Plamen Iossifov , and John Wakeman-Linn

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 July 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455255252.004

ISBN: 9781455255252

Keywords: Emerging markets, Global financial crisis, policy response, cost containment, CEMAC, fiscal policy, fiscal sustainability, monetary policy, foreign exchange, exchange rate

The financial sector of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) has been seriously affected by the global financial crisis and resulting global recession. This note assesses the response of CEMA...

Note d'orientation des services du FMI
			: La crise financière internationale et la récession mondiale: impact sur la région de la CEMAC et considérations stratégiques

Note d'orientation des services du FMI : La crise financière internationale et la récession mondiale: impact sur la région de la CEMAC et considérations stratégiques »

Volume/Issue: 2009/20

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): John Wakeman-Linn , Dimitre Milkov , Plamen Iossifov , and Rafael Portillo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 July 2009

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616352363.004

ISBN: 9781616352363

Keywords: prix, politique budgétaire, viabilité des finances publiques, crédit, relance budgétaire, solde budgétaire, paiements, orientation de la politique budgétaire, déficits budgétaires, position budgétaire

Le secteur financier de la Communauté économique et monétaire de l'Afrique centrale (CEMAC) a été durement touché par la crise financière mondiale et par la récession mondiale qui s'en est suivie. Cette note examin...

Global Financial Regulatory Reform
			: Implications for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC)

Global Financial Regulatory Reform : Implications for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) »

Volume/Issue: 2009/19

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Robert Rennhack

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 July 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462378791.004

ISBN: 9781462378791

Keywords: Financial institutions, Financial systems, Bank reforms, Bank regulations, Banking sector, Bank supervision, Basel Core Principles, Caribbean, Central banks, Governance

The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region has weathered the global financial crisis reasonably well so far, although tighter global financial conditions began to take their toll on trade, capital flows and econo...

Disclosing Fiscal Risks in the Post-Crisis World

Disclosing Fiscal Risks in the Post-Crisis World »

Volume/Issue: 2009/18

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 July 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455241125.004

ISBN: 9781455241125

Keywords: External shocks, Financial risk, Financial sector, Financial systems, Contingent liabilities, Fiscal sector, Fiscal policy, Public debt, Transparency, disclosure of information

This paper discusses appropriate methods for disclosing fiscal risks from exogenous shocks and the realization of explicit or implicit contingent obligations of the government. Expanding on previous guidance prepar...

Collecting Taxes During an Economic Crisis
			: Challenges and Policy Options

Collecting Taxes During an Economic Crisis : Challenges and Policy Options »

Volume/Issue: 2009/17

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): John Brondolo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 July 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462339440.004

ISBN: 9781462339440

Keywords: Financial crisis, Corporate sector, Collection of taxes, Fiscal policy, Tax collection, Tax administration, Tax revenues, Value added tax, taxpayers, tax agencies

The global financial and economic crisis presents major challenges for tax agencies. With the economic downturn, tax agencies are encountering emerging compliance problems and greater demands for taxpayer support i...

Principles of Household Debt Restructuring

Principles of Household Debt Restructuring »

Volume/Issue: 2009/15

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Thomas Laryea , and Luc Laeven

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 June 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462376773.004

ISBN: 9781462376773

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Credit expansion, Credit risk, Debt restructuring, Debt, Debt sustainability, Bankruptcy, Financial crisis, Financial sector, Intervention

This paper examines the estimated compliance with the macroeconomic convergence targets for 2008, based on estimates contained in the IMF's Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa (the REO). SADC's regional e...

The Southern African Development Community's Macroeconomic Convergence Program
			: Initial Performance

The Southern African Development Community's Macroeconomic Convergence Program : Initial Performance »

Volume/Issue: 2009/14

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Robert Burgess

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462321278.004

ISBN: 9781462321278

Keywords: Fiscal management, Cross country analysis, Current account balances, Economic growth, Fiscal sustainability, Inflation, Monetary unions, Southern Africa, Public debt, low-income countries

This paper discusses initial performance of the Southern African Development Community's (SADC) Macroeconomic Convergence Program. The SADC's regional economic integration agenda includes a macroeconomic convergenc...

Fiscal Implications of the Global Economic and Financial Crisis

Fiscal Implications of the Global Economic and Financial Crisis »

Volume/Issue: 2009/13

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 June 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462374755.004

ISBN: 9781462374755

Keywords: Asset management, Developed countries, Cross country analysis, Economic recession, Emerging markets, Financial risk, Financial sector, Financial crisis, Revenue measures, Public finance

This note reflects macroeconomic and fiscal forecasts presented with the April 2009 World Economic Outlook, as well as information on fiscal stimulus and financial and industrial sector support gathered through mid...

The Economics of Bank Restructuring
			: Understanding the Options

The Economics of Bank Restructuring : Understanding the Options »

Volume/Issue: 2009/12

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Augustin Landier , and Kenichi Ueda

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 05 June 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462337422.004

ISBN: 9781462337422

Keywords: Bank restructuring, debt, restructuring, recapitalization, shareholders, asset sales

Based on a simple framework, this note clarifies the economics behind bank restructuring and evaluates various restructuring options for systemically important banks. The note assumes that the government aims to re...

Fiscal Multipliers

Fiscal Multipliers »

Volume/Issue: 2009/11

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Antonio Spilimbergo , Martin Schindler , and Steven Symansky

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 May 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462372737.004

ISBN: 9781462372737

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Capital markets, Consumption, Budget deficits, Fiscal sustainability, Fiscal policy, Government expenditures, Interest rates, Private savings, Taxes

This paper provides background information for policymakers on fiscal multipliers, including quantitative estimates. The fiscal multiplier is the ratio of a change in output to an exogenous change in the fiscal def...

Fiscal Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa in Response to the Impact of the Global Crisis

Fiscal Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa in Response to the Impact of the Global Crisis »

Volume/Issue: 2009/10

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Shamsuddin Tareq , Andrew Berg , Victor Lledo , Antonio Spilimbergo , Rolando Ossowski , Irene Yackovlev , Norbert Funke , Alejandro Hajdenberg , and Martin Schindler

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 May 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462335404.004

ISBN: 9781462335404

Keywords: Emerging markets, Financial crisis, Cross country analysis, Commodities, Commodity price fluctuations, Developing countries, Infrastructure, Government expenditures, Fiscal policy, Social safety nets

The global financial crisis poses significant challenges to fiscal policies in Sub-Saharan African countries. Growth will weaken considerably as export prices and volumes, remittances, tourism, and capital flows de...

Policies to Mitigate Procyclicality

Policies to Mitigate Procyclicality »

Volume/Issue: 2009/9

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 May 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462370719.004

ISBN: 9781462370719

Keywords: Economic models, risk management, liquidity risk, financial stability, deposit insurance, market risk

This paper examines the reasons for this, specifically focusing on regulations or market practices that can accentuate economic cycles. Although recognizing various practical limitations, new policy responses are i...

Coping with the Crisis
			: Policy Options for Emerging Market Countries

Coping with the Crisis : Policy Options for Emerging Market Countries »

Volume/Issue: 2009/8

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Christopher Crowe , Jonathan Ostry , Jun Kim , Marcos Chamon , and Atish Ghosh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 April 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462323296.004

ISBN: 9781462323296

Keywords: Emerging markets, exchange rate, fiscal policy, foreign exchange, interest rates, foreign currency

This chapter outlines policies to help solve the debt overhang and bring about recovery in both groups of countries. The current financial turmoil is confronting emerging market economies with two shocks: a ‘sudden...

Addressing Information Gaps

Addressing Information Gaps »

Volume/Issue: 2009/6

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Christian Mulder , Phil De Imus , L. Psalida , Jeanne Gobat , R. Johnston , Mangal Goswami , and Francisco Vazquez

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455294602.004

ISBN: 9781455294602

Keywords: Credit risk, Data analysis, Data quality assessment framework, Capital markets, Financial sector, Financial institutions, Financial instruments, Financial crisis, Economic models, Economic indicators

This paper outlines some of the key information gaps in the information used in the assessment of financial institution and financial system stability and the priorities for filling them. Key areas for attention in...

The Perimeter of Financial Regulation

The Perimeter of Financial Regulation »

Volume/Issue: 2009/7

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Luisa Zanforlin , Ian Tower , Erlend Nier , Michael Moore , Ana Carvajal , and Randall Dodd

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455296620.004

ISBN: 9781455296620

Keywords: Financial systems, regulation, regulatory requirements, regulatory framework, regulatory agencies

The G-20 has called for a review of the scope of financial regulation. This call reflects concern that the coverage of prudential regulation has been too narrow. A discussion of extending the regulatory perimeter s...

The Global Financial Crisis
			: Impact on WAEMU Member Countries and Policy Options

The Global Financial Crisis : Impact on WAEMU Member Countries and Policy Options »

Volume/Issue: 2009/16

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Johannes Mueller , Irene Yackovlev , and Hans Weisfeld

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455229017.004

ISBN: 9781455229017

Keywords: Current account deficits, Credit risk, Banking sector, Bank supervision, Aid flows, External shocks, Financial crisis, Monetary unions, Monetary policy, Liquidity management

Most WAEMU countries are likely to see economic growth deteriorate over the next two years as a result of the global economic crisis, and some WAEMU countries will be more severely affected by the crisis than other...

Why Has Japan Been Hit So Hard by the Global Recession?

Why Has Japan Been Hit So Hard by the Global Recession? »

Volume/Issue: 2009/5

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Martin Sommer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455282494.004

ISBN: 9781455282494

Keywords: Demand, Domestic investment, Consumption, Consumer goods, Exports, Financial crisis, Manufacturing sector, International trade, Industrial sector, Private sector

The Japanese economy has been hit hard by the slump in global demand for advanced manufacturing products such as cars, information technology, and machinery, which account for a larger share of production than in o...

Financial Crises and Emerging Market Trade

Financial Crises and Emerging Market Trade »

Volume/Issue: 2009/4

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Alun Thomas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455280476.004

ISBN: 9781455280476

Keywords: Economic models, Emerging markets, Financial crisis, Export credits, Exports, Capital flows, Imports, International trade, Trade models, private capital

This chapter discusses various aspects of financial crises and emerging market trade. The current global financial crisis and the sharp reduction in trade flows have raised questions about the extent to which acces...

The Case for Global Fiscal Stimulus

The Case for Global Fiscal Stimulus »

Volume/Issue: 2009/3

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Douglas Laxton , Michael Kumhof , and Charles Freedman

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 March 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781455268368.004

ISBN: 9781455268368

Keywords: Financial sector, Financial crisis, Economic models, Central banks, Cross country analysis, Economic growth, Spillovers, Stabilization measures, Fiscal policy, Monetary policy

This paper presents simulations with a multicountry structural model to show that worldwide expansionary fiscal policy combined with accommodative monetary policy can have significant multiplier effects on the worl...

Foreclosure Mitigation Efforts in the United States
			: Approaches and Challenges

Foreclosure Mitigation Efforts in the United States : Approaches and Challenges »

Volume/Issue: 2009/02

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Vladimir Klyuev , and John Kiff

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 January 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068247.004

ISBN: 9781589068247

Keywords: Fiscal policy, foreclosure, foreclosures, equity, liens, securitization

Home foreclosure rates have risen in the United States to the highest levels since the Great Depression. With house prices falling, lending standards tightening, unemployment rising, and interest rate resets in the...

Gauging Risks for Deflation

Gauging Risks for Deflation »

Volume/Issue: 2009/1

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Jörg Decressin , and Douglas Laxton

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 January 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067295.004

ISBN: 9781589067295

Keywords: Fiscal policy, monetary policy, interest rates, exchange rate, central banks, central bank

This paper discusses deflation risks and policy options. The paper highlights that slumping collateral values have exacerbated the credit crunch, and monetary policy has lost effectiveness in stabilizing output. A...

Fiscal Policy for the Crisis

Fiscal Policy for the Crisis »

Volume/Issue: 2008/01

Series: IMF Staff Position Notes

Author(s): Antonio Spilimbergo , Steven Symansky , Carlo Cottarelli , and Olivier Blanchard

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 January 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067981.004

ISBN: 9781589067981

Keywords: Fiscal policy, fiscal stimulus, aggregate demand, interest rates, fiscal multipliers

The current crisis calls for two main sets of policy measures. First, measures to repair the financial system. Second, measures to increase demand and restore confidence. While some of these measures overlap, the f...