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The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Los regímenes de tipo de cambio y la estabilidad del sistema monetario internacional

Los regímenes de tipo de cambio y la estabilidad del sistema monetario internacional »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 November 2014

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498324076.084

ISBN: 9781498324076

Keywords: Exchange rate regimes, Financial stability, International monetary system, Reserve currencies, Reserves accumulation, Trade integration, tipo de cambio, régimen de tipo de cambio, tipos de cambio, tipo de cambio real

Los países miembros del Fondo Monetario Internacional colaboran para asegurar que los regímenes cambiarios funcionen ordenadamente y para fomentar la estabilidad del sistema cambiario, reconociendo que el objetivo...

The Economic Impact of IMF-Supported Programs in Low-Income Countries

The Economic Impact of IMF-Supported Programs in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Yasemin Bal-Gunduz , Christian Ebeke , Burcu Hacibedel , Linda Kaltani , Vera Kehayova , Chris Lane , Christian Mumssen , Nkunde Mwase , and Joseph Thornton

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484394717.084

ISBN: 9781484394717

Keywords: Economic growth, Emergency financing mechanism, Extended Credit Facility, Fund-supported adjustment programs, Low-income developing countries, balance of payments, debt relief, current account, external shocks, current account balance

This paper aims to assess the economic impact of the IMF’s support through its facilities for low-income countries. It relies on two complementary econometric analyses: the first investigates the longer-term...

Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616354121.084

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

Low-income countries routinely experience exogenous disturbances—sharp swings in the terms of trade, export demand, natural disasters, and volatile financial flows—that contribute to higher volatility...

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616354138.084

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Exchange Rate Regimes and the Stability of the International Monetary System

Exchange Rate Regimes and the Stability of the International Monetary System »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069312.084

ISBN: 9781589069312

Keywords: Exchange rate regimes, Financial stability, International monetary system, Reserve currencies, Reserves accumulation, Trade integration, exchange rate, exchange rate regime, exchange rates, real exchange rate

The member countries of the International Monetary Fund collaborate to try to assure orderly exchange arrangements and promote a stable system of exchange rates, recognizing that the essential purpose of the intern...

External Performance in Low-Income Countries

External Performance in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350536.084

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

Assessments of exchange rate misalignments and external imbalances for low-income countries are challenging because methodologies developed for advanced and emerging economies cannot be automatically applied to poo...

Making Fiscal Decentralization Work
			: Cross-Country Experiences

Making Fiscal Decentralization Work : Cross-Country Experiences »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Annalisa Fedelino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069855.084

ISBN: 9781589069855

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Intergovernmental fiscal relations, decentralization, fiscal decentralization, subnational governments, intergovernmental fiscal, fiscal relations

The question of what makes fiscal decentralization work is faced by many policymakers around the world. This book draws on both the relevant literature and policy and technical advice provided by the IMF to a wide...

The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies
			: Targeting Emerging Economies

The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies : Targeting Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Anna Nordstrom , Scott Roger , Mark Stone , Seiichi Shimizu , Turgut Kisinbay , and Jorge Restrepo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067967.084

ISBN: 9781589067967

Keywords: Developing countries, Central bank role, Emerging markets, Exchange rates, Inflation targeting, exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy

This paper explores the role of exchange rates in emerging economies with inflation-targeting regimes, an issue that has become especially germane during the current episode of financial turmoil and volatile capita...

Structural Reforms and Economic Performance in Advanced and Developing Countries

Structural Reforms and Economic Performance in Advanced and Developing Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , and Antonio Spilimbergo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068186.084

ISBN: 9781589068186

Keywords: Economic growth, Economic reforms, Financial sector, Developing countries, Developed countries, Capital account liberalization, Structural adjustment, Terms of trade, domestic financial sector, trade liberalization

This volume examines the impact on economic performance of structural policies-policies that increase the role of market forces and competition in the economy, while maintaining appropriate regulatory frameworks. T...

Le cadre de viabilité de la dette appliqué aux pays à faible revenu

Le cadre de viabilité de la dette appliqué aux pays à faible revenu »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Christian Beddies , Marie-Helene Le Manchec , and Bergljot Barkbu

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 September 2009

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068117.084

ISBN: 9781589068117

Keywords: debt sustainability, public debt, debt service, debt relief, domestic debt, debt-service, current account, debt burden, debt dynamics, debt ratio

Low-income countries continue to face significant challenges in meeting their vast development needs while maintaining a sustainable debt position, even after many of these countries have benefited from substantial...

Fiscal Implications of the Global Economic and Financial Crisis

Fiscal Implications of the Global Economic and Financial Crisis »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 September 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068506.084

ISBN: 9781589068506

Keywords: Budgets, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Financial institutions, Public finance, Pension funds, Global Financial Crisis 2008-2009, Fiscal stability, financial sector, deposit insurance

The economic and financial crisis is affecting the fiscal accounts of virtually every country. Public sector support for the financial system, fiscal stimulus and the automatic stabilizers, as well as the revenue d...

Exchange Rate Assessments
			: CGER Methodologies

Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Luca Ricci , Jonathan Ostry , Jaewoo Lee , Alessandro Prati , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 March 2009

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504950093.084

ISBN: 9787504950093

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets, real exchange rates, current account balances

The rapid increase in international trade and financial integration over the past decade and the growing importance of emerging markets in world trade and GDP have inspired the IMF to place stronger emphasis on mul...

The Debt Sustainability Framework for Low-Income Countries

The Debt Sustainability Framework for Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Bergljot Barkbu , Marie-Helene Le Manchec , and Christian Beddies

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 February 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067929.084

ISBN: 9781589067929

Keywords: Borrowing, Debt strategy, Debt sustainability analysis, External debt, External financing, Low-income developing countries, Multilateral debt relief initiative, HIPC Initiative, Risk management, debt sustainability

Low-income countries continue to face significant challenges in meeting their vast development needs while maintaining a sustainable debt position, even after many of these countries have benefited from substantial...

Developing Essential Financial Markets in Smaller Economies
			: Stylized Facts and Policy Options

Developing Essential Financial Markets in Smaller Economies : Stylized Facts and Policy Options »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067752.084

ISBN: 9781589067752

Keywords: Banking systems, Central bank policy, Financial sector, Small states, Stock markets, foreign exchange, exchange rate, foreign exchange market, equity markets, stock exchange

This paper surveys the foreign exchange markets, money and secondary government security markets, and stock exchanges in 107 smaller economy countries. The underdevelopment of these markets impedes risk transfer, m...

Reaping the Benefits of Financial Globalization

Reaping the Benefits of Financial Globalization »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Giovanni Dell'Ariccia , Paolo Mauro , Andre Faria , Jonathan Ostry , Julian Di Giovanni , Martin Schindler , Ayhan Kose , and Marco Terrones

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 December 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067486.084

ISBN: 9781589067486

Keywords: Economic growth, Financial management, Capital controls, Fiscal reforms, Fiscal stability, Risk management, financial globalization, financial integration, globalization, financial sector

Financial globalization has increased dramatically over the past three decades, particularly for advanced economies, while emerging market and developing countries experienced more moderate increases. Divergences a...

Macroeconomic Implications of Financial Dollarization
			: The Case of Uruguay

Macroeconomic Implications of Financial Dollarization : The Case of Uruguay »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): R. Gelos , Alejandro Lopez Mejia , and Marco Piñón-Farah

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067271.084

ISBN: 9781589067271

Keywords: Dollarization, Banking sector, Exchange rate regimes, External sector, Fiscal sustainability, Fiscal reforms, inflation, monetary policy, central bank, foreign currency

Uruguay has experienced a remarkable recovery since the 2002 crisis, supported by sound policies and favorable external conditions. With the framework put in place in 2002, Uruguay abandoned an exchange rate peg in...

IMF Support and Crisis Prevention

IMF Support and Crisis Prevention »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Juan Zalduendo , Alun Thomas , Jun Kim , Uma Ramakrishnan , and Bikas Joshi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 May 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067097.084

ISBN: 9781589067097

Keywords: Balance of payments assistance, Emerging markets, Foreign exchange reserves, Fund role, Multilateral surveillance, capital account, crisis prevention, capital account crises, capital account crisis, current account

This paper examines the various roles of IMF financing in crisis prevention. Emerging market economies that experienced financial crises in the past have been subject to enormous economic and social costs, highligh...

Managing the Oil Revenue Boom
			: The Role of Fiscal Institutions

Managing the Oil Revenue Boom : The Role of Fiscal Institutions »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Mauricio Villafuerte , Rolando Ossowski , Theo Thomas , and Paulo Medas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 April 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067189.084

ISBN: 9781589067189

Keywords: Financial institutions, Oil revenues, oil-producing countries, fiscal policy, oil prices, fiscal rules

Oil-producing countries have benefited from rising oil prices in recent years. The increase in oil exports and oil revenues has had major implications for these countries. These developments have revealed how gover...

Exchange Rate Assessments
			: CGER Methodologies

Exchange Rate Assessments : CGER Methodologies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaewoo Lee , Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , and Gian Milesi-Ferretti

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066380.084

ISBN: 9781589066380

Keywords: Exchange rates, Exchange rate assessments, current account, exchange rate, current account balance, real exchange rate

The rapid increase in international trade and financial integration over the past decade and the growing importance of emerging markets in world trade and GDP have inspired the IMF to place stronger emphasis on mul...

Macroeconomic Consequences of Remittances

Macroeconomic Consequences of Remittances »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Connel Fullenkamp , Thomas Cosimano , Michael Gapen , Ralph Chami , Peter Montiel , and Adolfo Barajas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 March 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067011.084

ISBN: 9781589067011

Keywords: Debt sustainability, Capital inflows, Economic models, Economic growth, Real effective exchange rates, Income, Migration, Labor markets, Workers remittances, remittances

Given the large size of aggregate remittance flows (billions of dollars annually), they should be expected to have significant macroeconomic effects on the economies that receive them. This paper directly addresses...

Northern Star
			: Canada's Path to Economic Prosperity

Northern Star : Canada's Path to Economic Prosperity »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Vladimir Klyuev , Martin Mühleisen , and Tamim Bayoumi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 October 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066144.084

ISBN: 9781589066144

Keywords: Economic growth, Energy, Banking, Inflation targeting, pension, inflation, retirement, monetary policy, ld

Robust GDP growth, declining unemployment, low and stable inflation, and a string of fiscal and current account surpluses -- it's a record to be envied. These outcomes in Canada owe much to sound macroeconomic poli...

América Central
			: Crecimiento económico e integración

América Central : Crecimiento económico e integración »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 June 2007

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066601.084

ISBN: 9781589066601

¿Cómo consolidar los avances logrados con tanto esfuerzo, acrecentar la capacidad de resistencia a los shocks y alcanzar un mayor crecimiento económico a fin de reducir la pobreza? Estos son los desafíos que se le...

Economic Growth and Integration in Central America

Economic Growth and Integration in Central America »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alfred Schipke , and Dominique Desruelle

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 June 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066168.084

ISBN: 9781589066168

Keywords: Economic conditions, Economic growth, Public debt, debt, inflation, pension, monetary policy

How to entrench hard-won gains, increase resilience to shocks, and improve growth performance to reduce poverty? As Central America moves forward in regaining macroeconomic stability, these are the challenges. This...

Moving to Greater Exchange Rate Flexibility
			: Operational Aspects Based on Lessons from Detailed Country Experiences

Moving to Greater Exchange Rate Flexibility : Operational Aspects Based on Lessons from Detailed Country Experiences »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Inci Ötker

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 April 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066243.084

ISBN: 9781589066243

Keywords: Floating exchange rates, exchange rate, inflation, monetary policy, central bank, exchange rate flexibility

Many countries have moved towards more flexible exchange rate regimes over the last decade to take advantage of greater monetary policy autonomy and flexibility in responding to external shocks. Some reluctance to...

Country Insurance
			: The Role of Domestic Policies

Country Insurance : The Role of Domestic Policies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Paolo Mauro , Torbjorn Becker , Jonathan Ostry , Romain Ranciere , and Olivier Jeanne

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066076.084

ISBN: 9781589066076

Keywords: Insurance supervision, Insurance legislation, Insurance regulations, bonds, international reserves, domestic currency, currency crises, international financial

...

Sovereign Debt Restructuring and Debt Sustainability
			: An Analysis of Recent Cross-Country Experience

Sovereign Debt Restructuring and Debt Sustainability : An Analysis of Recent Cross-Country Experience »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Harald Finger , and Mauro Mecagni

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066106.084

ISBN: 9781589066106

Keywords: public debt, bonds, sovereign debt, debt restructuring, debt sustainability

Restoring a country's debt to a sustainable path after a sovereign debt restructuring is key to ensuring a credible and durable exit from the crisis. In recent years, a number of countries have restructured their s...

The Macroeconomics of Scaling Up Aid
			: Lessons from Recent Experience

The Macroeconomics of Scaling Up Aid : Lessons from Recent Experience »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Andrew Berg , Mumtaz Hussain , Shaun Roache , Amber Mahone , Tokhir Mirzoev , and Shekhar Aiyar

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 March 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065918.084

ISBN: 9781589065918

Keywords: Absorptive capacity, exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, real exchange rate, monetary policy

This study analyzes key issues associated with large increases in aid, including absorptive capacity, Dutch disease, and inflation. The authors develop a framework that emphasizes the different roles of monetary an...

Growth in the Central and Eastern European Countries of the European Union

Growth in the Central and Eastern European Countries of the European Union »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Abdul Abiad , Ashoka Mody , Susan Schadler , and Daniel Leigh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 January 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065543.084

ISBN: 9781589065543

Keywords: Eastern Europe, Economic growth, European Union, per capita income, growth rates, tfp, gdp growth, current account deficit

The central challenges facing the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia as they work to catch up to advanced European Union (EU) income levels are discussed in this new...

The Design and Implementation of Deposit Insurance Systems

The Design and Implementation of Deposit Insurance Systems »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): David Hoelscher , Michael Taylor , and Ulrich Klueh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 December 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065031.084

ISBN: 9781589065031

Keywords: Deposit insurance, insurance system, banking, insurance systems, deposit insurance systems

This paper describes recently established deposit insurance systems, identifying emerging trends. In line with previous IMF work on the subject, it argues against the development of "best practices" applicable to a...

Designing Monetary and Fiscal Policy in Low-Income Countries

Designing Monetary and Fiscal Policy in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jan Martijn , Gabriel Di Bella , Shamsuddin Tareq , Benedict Clements , and Abebe Aemro Selassie

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 July 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064966.084

ISBN: 9781589064966

Keywords: inflation, monetary fund, money growth, monetary policy

Macroeconomic outcomes in low-income countries (LICs) have improved markedly in recent years, but important questions remain regarding possible adjustments in the design of IMF-supported programs in such countries....

Labor Market Performance in Transition
			: The Experience of Central and Eastern European Countries

Labor Market Performance in Transition : The Experience of Central and Eastern European Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Philippe Egoume Bossogo , Jerald Schiff , Miho Ihara , Tetsuya Konuki , and Kornelia Krajnyak

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 July 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064690.084

ISBN: 9781589064690

Keywords: unemployment, employment, labor market, unemployment rates, unemployed

More than a decade after the start of the transition process, unemployment rates remain in the double digits in a number of Central and Eastern European countries. That unemployment rates have failed to decline, ev...

Experience with Large Fiscal Adjustments

Experience with Large Fiscal Adjustments »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Mark Horton , George Tsibouris , Wojciech Maliszewski , and Mark Flanagan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 June 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064584.084

ISBN: 9781589064584

Keywords: Fiscal management, expenditure, fiscal adjustment, expenditures, fiscal adjustments, fiscal policy

When policymakers have little option but to consider a sizable fiscal adjustment, they are confronted by the following questions: Can a large fiscal adjustment be implemented succesfully? How is a large adjustment...

Budget System Reform in Emerging Economies
			: The Challenges and the Reform Agenda

Budget System Reform in Emerging Economies : The Challenges and the Reform Agenda »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jack Diamond

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 April 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064744.084

ISBN: 9781589064744

Keywords: Budgetary reforms, Public finance, Government accounting, budget management, accrual accounting, performance budgeting, budget systems, budget system

With increasing frequency, the IMF has assisted middle-income countries, especially emerging economies, in adopting the types of budget reforms that have been introduced in many Organization for Economic Cooperatio...

Official Foreign Exchange Intervention

Official Foreign Exchange Intervention »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jorge Canales Kriljenko , Cem Karacadag , Roberto Guimarães , and Shogo Ishii

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 02 March 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064218.084

ISBN: 9781589064218

Keywords: foreign exchange, exchange rate, foreign exchange market, central bank, exchange rate volatility

Despite increasing exchange rate flexibility, central banks in emerging markets still intervene in their foreign exchange markets for several reasons. In doing so, they face many operational questions, including on...

Rebuilding Fiscal Institutions in Postconflict Countries

Rebuilding Fiscal Institutions in Postconflict Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Rina Bhattacharya , Benedict Clements , Sanjeev Gupta , Shamsuddin Tareq , Alex Segura-Ubiergo , and Todd Mattina

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064492.084

ISBN: 9781589064492

Keywords: Post-conflict emergency assistance, public expenditure, expenditure, expenditure management, public expenditure management, fiscal institutions

This paper discusses experiences in reestablishing fiscal management in postconflict countries. Building fiscal institutions in postconflict countries essentially entails a three-step process: (1) creating a legal...

Monetary Policy Implementation at Different Stages of Market Development

Monetary Policy Implementation at Different Stages of Market Development »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Bernard Laurens

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 December 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064386.084

ISBN: 9781589064386

Keywords: Money markets, money market, monetary policy, central bank, reserve requirements, money market operations

The most salient trend in monetary policy over the past two decades has been increasing reliance on money market operations, which reflects the belief that allowing market forces to allocate financial resources bri...

Debt-Related Vulnerabilities and Financial Crises

Debt-Related Vulnerabilities and Financial Crises »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Brad Setser , Ioannis Halikias , Alexander Pitt , Christoph Rosenberg , Brett House , Jens Nystedt , and Christian Keller

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 October 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064256.084

ISBN: 9781589064256

Keywords: banking, banking system, external debt, public debt, central bank

The analysis of currency and maturity mismatches in sectoral balance sheets has increasingly become a regular element in the IMF's tool kit for surveillance in emerging market countries. This paper describes this s...

The Design of IMF-Supported Programs

The Design of IMF-Supported Programs »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Charalambos Christofides , Atish Ghosh , Uma Ramakrishnan , Alun Thomas , Laura Papi , Juan Zalduendo , and Jun Kim

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 September 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061934.084

ISBN: 9781589061934

Keywords: current account, current account balance, inflation, capital account, balance of payments

This collection of papers examines IMF-supported programs over the period 1995-2000 in both middle-income and low-income countries. In order to seek insights from a comparison across different types of programs, th...

Turkey at the Crossroads
			: From Crisis Resolution to EU Accession

Turkey at the Crossroads : From Crisis Resolution to EU Accession »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Donal McGettigan , Xavier Debrun , Mark Griffiths , Reza Moghadam , Ernesto Ramirez Rigo , Martin Schindler , Mats Josefsson , Cheng Lim , Christian Keller , Christoph Klingen , Chris Lane , Oya Celasun , Ashoka Mody , Dewitt Marston , and Mathew Verghis

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 September 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063860.084

ISBN: 9781589063860

Keywords: Financial sector, Economic growth, Labor markets, foreign currency, inflation, banking, public debt, external debt

The key policy challenge for Turkey in the years ahead will be to enhance and consolidate the advances made since the nation's 2000-01 economic crisis. Higher growth could reduce unemployment and raise living stand...

América Central
			: Integración mundial y cooperación regional

América Central : Integración mundial y cooperación regional »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alfred Schipke , and Markus Rodlauer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 September 2005

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064799.084

ISBN: 9781589064799

América Central ha concitado creciente atención como una región que se está integrando exitosamente a la economía mundial. Este estudio examina -entre otras cosas- las implicaciones macroeconómicas y fiscales del A...

Central America
			: Global Integration and Regional Cooperation

Central America : Global Integration and Regional Cooperation »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Markus Rodlauer , and Alfred Schipke

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 July 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064461.084

ISBN: 9781589064461

Keywords: Tax administration, Statistics, exchange rate, exchange rate regimes, exchange rate regime, free trade, trade diversion

Central America has received growing attention as a region that is integrating successfully into the global economy. This paper examines-among other things-the macroeconomic and fiscal implications of the Free Trad...

Estabilización y reforma en América Latina
			: Perspectiva macroeconómica desde principios de los años noventa

Estabilización y reforma en América Latina : Perspectiva macroeconómica desde principios de los años noventa »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Agnes Belaisch , Charles Collyns , Paula De Masi , Guy Meredith , Anoop Singh , Reva Krieger , and Robert Rennhack

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 May 2005

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064331.084

ISBN: 9781589064331

Este estudio examina las influencias externas e internas sobre el desempeño económico de América Latina durante los últimos 15 años. Se destaca que en los últimos años se han fortalecido las políticas macroeconómic...

Adopting the Euro in Central Europe
			: Challenges of the Next Step in European Integration

Adopting the Euro in Central Europe : Challenges of the Next Step in European Integration »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 April 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063501.084

ISBN: 9781589063501

Keywords: Euro, exchange rate, inflation, monetary policy, exchange rates, foreign exchange

Upon entry into the European Union, countries become members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), with a derogation from adopting the euro as their currency (that is, each country joining the EU commits to rep...

Lessons from the Crisis in Argentina

Lessons from the Crisis in Argentina »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Christina Daseking , Atish Ghosh , Timothy Lane , and Alun Thomas

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 February 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063594.084

ISBN: 9781589063594

Keywords: exchange rate, currency board, central bank, debt dynamics, public debt

In 2001- 02, Argentina experienced one of the worst economic crises in its history. A default on government debt, which occurred against the backdrop of a prolonged recession, sent the Argentine currency and econom...

Stabilization and Reform in Latin America
			: A Macroeconomic Perspective of the Experience Since the 1990s

Stabilization and Reform in Latin America : A Macroeconomic Perspective of the Experience Since the 1990s »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Agnes Belaisch , Charles Collyns , Paula De Masi , Guy Meredith , Anoop Singh , Reva Krieger , and Robert Rennhack

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 February 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062504.084

ISBN: 9781589062504

Keywords: Economic reforms, Economic recovery, Latin America, exchange rate, inflation, banking, exchange rate regimes, dollarization

This study examines external and domestic influences on Latin America's economic performance over the past decade and a half. It notes that over the past few years, macroeconomic policies have strengthened and stru...

Sovereign Debt Structure for Crisis Prevention

Sovereign Debt Structure for Crisis Prevention »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Eduardo Borensztein , Olivier Jeanne , Paolo Mauro , Jeronimo Zettelmeyer , and Marcos Chamon

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 January 2005

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063778.084

ISBN: 9781589063778

Keywords: bonds, bond, currency debt, indexation, indexed bonds

The debate on government debt in the context of possible reforms of the international financial architecture has thus far focused on crisis resolution. This paper seeks to broaden this debate. It asks how governmen...

Managing Systemic Banking Crises

Managing Systemic Banking Crises »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Marc Quintyn , and David Hoelscher

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 December 2004

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504935410.084

ISBN: 9787504935410

Keywords: banking crises, recapitalization, debt restructuring, deposit insurance, banking system, banking crisis, asset management, bank restructuring, asset management company, bank runs

Recent financial sector crises and their resolution have raised new issues and provided additional experiences to draw on in the future. Banking sector problems in Russia, Turkey, and a few Latin American countries...

GEM
			: A New International Macroeconomic Model

GEM : A New International Macroeconomic Model »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Tamim Bayoumi , Hamid Faruqee , Douglas Laxton , Philippe Karam , Alessandro Rebucci , Jaewoo Lee , Benjamin Hunt , and Ivan Tchakarov

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 November 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063754.084

ISBN: 9781589063754

Keywords: Economic models, inflation, monetary policy, aggregate demand, monetary fund, oil prices

Over the past two years, the IMF staff has been developing a new multicountry macroeconomic model called the Global Economy Model (GEM). This paper explains why such a model is needed, how GEM differs from its pred...

A New Look at Exchange Rate Volatility and Trade Flows

A New Look at Exchange Rate Volatility and Trade Flows »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Peter Clark , Shang-Jin Wei , Natalia Tamirisa , Azim Sadikov , and Li Zeng

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 September 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063587.084

ISBN: 9781589063587

Keywords: Capital flows, Exchange rates, Trade, exchange rate, exchange rate volatility, real exchange rate, bilateral trade

The effect of exchange rate volatility on trade flows was examined by a 1984 IMF study on G-7 countries. Over the past two decades, many developments in the world economy, such as the currency crises in the 1990s a...

Chile
			: Institutions and Policies Underpinning Stability and Growth

Chile : Institutions and Policies Underpinning Stability and Growth »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Eliot Kalter , Steven Phillips , Manmohan Singh , Mauricio Villafuerte , Rodolfo Luzio , and Marco Espinosa-Vega

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 June 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063259.084

ISBN: 9781589063259

Keywords: Economic growth, central bank, inflation, capital markets, banking, external debt

This paper presents the primary institutions and economic policies that have led to Chile's remarkable record of stability and growth over the past twenty years. The core of this policy stance is the combination of...

Germany's Three-Pillar Banking System
			: Cross-Country Perspectives in Europe

Germany's Three-Pillar Banking System : Cross-Country Perspectives in Europe »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 June 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063488.084

ISBN: 9781589063488

Keywords: Banking systems, banking, savings banks, commercial banks, banking system, savings bank

German banks tend to be less profitable than their foreign counterparts. This paper estimates the likely effect of the phaseout of state guarantees for public sector banks, reviews the various ways in which public...

China's Growth and Integration into the World Economy
			: Prospects and Challenges

China's Growth and Integration into the World Economy : Prospects and Challenges »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Eswar Prasad

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 June 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062580.084

ISBN: 9781589062580

Keywords: Economic growth, Development, Trade, exchange rate, inflation, real exchange rate, employment, unemployment

China's transformation into a dynamic private-sector-led economy and its integration into the world economy have been among the most dramatic global economic developments of recent decades. This paper provides an o...

Financial Stability in Dollarized Economies

Financial Stability in Dollarized Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Anne Gulde , David Hoelscher , Alain Ize , Dewitt Marston , and Gianni De Nicolo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 June 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062962.084

ISBN: 9781589062962

Keywords: Dollarization, Financial stability, banking, foreign exchange, banking system, exchange rate

This paper addresses the challenges to prudential supervision in highly dollarized economies, where central banks and supervisors may be constrained in the use of standard money and financial policy tools. The stud...

Effects on Financial Globalization on Developing Countries
			: Some Empirical Evidence

Effects on Financial Globalization on Developing Countries : Some Empirical Evidence »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Kenneth Rogoff , Eswar Prasad , Ayhan Kose , and Shang-Jin Wei

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 May 2004

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504933096.084

ISBN: 9787504933096

Keywords: capital flows, financial integration, globalization, capital inflows, financial globalization, capital account liberalization, international financial, capital markets, international financial integration, international capital flows

This study provides a candid, systematic, and critical review of recent evidence on this complex subject. Based on a review of the literature and some new empirical evidence, it finds that (1) in spite of an appare...

Evolution and Performance of Exchange Rate Regimes

Evolution and Performance of Exchange Rate Regimes »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Robin Brooks , Kenneth Rogoff , Ashoka Mody , Nienke Oomes , and Aasim Husain

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 May 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589063273.084

ISBN: 9781589063273

Keywords: Exchange rate regimes, exchange rate, inflation, exchange rates, exchange rate regime

The issue of the appropriate exchange rate regime for individual countries has been perennially lively, and the role played by international capital flows and domestic financial systems in determining the performan...

Hong Kong SAR
			: Meeting the Challenges of Integration with the Mainland

Hong Kong SAR : Meeting the Challenges of Integration with the Mainland »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): William Lee , Jorge Chan-Lau , Dora Iakova , Papa N'Diaye , Tao Wang , Ida Liu , Hong Liang , and Eswar Prasad

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 February 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062948.084

ISBN: 9781589062948

Keywords: Economic conditions, Hong Kong SAR, prices, wage, expenditure, wages, government expenditure

This Occasional Paper provides an overview of the main challenges facing Hong Kong SAR as it continues to become more closely integrated with the mainland of China. Section I provides an overview of recent macroeco...

Capital Markets and Financial Intermediation in The Baltics

Capital Markets and Financial Intermediation in The Baltics »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Niamh Sheridan , Alfred Schipke , Susan George , and Christian Beddies

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 January 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062726.084

ISBN: 9781589062726

Keywords: Financial systems, Banking, capital markets, financial system, bond, capital market

In just over a decade after independence, the three Baltic countries, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, have transformed themselves into fully functioning, small open-market economies that will be joining the Europea...

U.S. Fiscal Policies and Priorities for Long-Run Sustainability

U.S. Fiscal Policies and Priorities for Long-Run Sustainability »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Martin Mühleisen , and Christopher Towe

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 January 2004

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062955.084

ISBN: 9781589062955

Keywords: Economic growth, medicare, tax cuts, health care, public debt, fiscal policy

This paper presents an overview of recent U.S. fiscal developments and discusses possible implications of the sharp turn around in the government's fiscal position. Against this back ground, it also reviews key pol...

Rules-Based Fiscal Policy in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain

Rules-Based Fiscal Policy in France, Germany, Italy, and Spain »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Teresa Daban Sanchez , Steven Symansky , Gian Milesi-Ferretti , Enrica Detragiache , and Gabriel Di Bella

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 November 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062160.084

ISBN: 9781589062160

Keywords: fiscal policy, expenditure, fiscal rules, expenditures, public debt

Fiscal rules can help to counteract the deficits and spending biases that too often originate in the political process. Rules that constrain spending--rather than the balance--allow fiscal policy to be countercycli...

Economic Policy in a Highly Dollarized Economy
			: The Case of Cambodia

Economic Policy in a Highly Dollarized Economy : The Case of Cambodia »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061897.084

ISBN: 9781589061897

Keywords: Dollarization, national bank, inflation, foreign currency, currency board

This study examines the challenges and issues facing policymakers in highly dollarized economies. Focusing on Cambodia, which achieved almost complete dollarization during 1991-95, the authors review recent develop...

Effects of Financial Globalization on Developing Countries
			: Some Empirical Evidence

Effects of Financial Globalization on Developing Countries : Some Empirical Evidence »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ayhan Kose , Kenneth Rogoff , Eswar Prasad , and Shang-Jin Wei

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 September 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062214.084

ISBN: 9781589062214

Keywords: Developing countries, capital flows, financial integration, globalization, capital inflows, financial globalization

This study provides a candid, systematic, and critical review of recent evidence on this complex subject. Based on a review of the literature and some new empirical evidence, it finds that (1) in spite of an appare...

Monetary Union Among Member Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council

Monetary Union Among Member Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ugo Fasano-Filho , and Andrea Schaechter

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 August 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062191.084

ISBN: 9781589062191

Keywords: monetary union, central bank, monetary policy, monetary unions, oil prices

The six member countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates--have made important progress toward economic and financial integration, with...

Managing Systemic Banking Crises

Managing Systemic Banking Crises »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Marc Quintyn , and David Hoelscher

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 August 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062245.084

ISBN: 9781589062245

Keywords: Banking, banking crises, recapitalization, debt restructuring, deposit insurance

Recent financial sector crises and their resolution have raised new issues and provided additional experiences to draw on in the future. Banking sector problems in Russia, Turkey, and a few Latin American countries...

Informal Funds Transfer Systems
			: An Analysis of the Informal Hawala System

Informal Funds Transfer Systems : An Analysis of the Informal Hawala System »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Mohammed El Qorchi , Samuel Maimbo , and John Wilson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 August 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062269.084

ISBN: 9781589062269

Keywords: Financial systems, banking, remittance, remittances, foreign exchange, banking sector

Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, there has been increased public interest in informal funds transfer (IFT) systems. This paper examines the informal hawala system, an IFT system found predominantl...

Deflation
			: Determinants, Risks, and Policy Options

Deflation : Determinants, Risks, and Policy Options »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Taimur Baig , Jörg Decressin , Tarhan Feyzioglu , Manmohan Kumar , and Chris Faulkner-MacDonagh

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 June 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062276.084

ISBN: 9781589062276

Keywords: inflation, monetary policy, aggregate demand, money supply, low inflation

Deflation can be costly and difficult to anticipate, and concerns of a generalized decline in prices in both industrial and emerging market economies have increased recently. This paper investigates the causes and...

Crisis financieras
			: Experiencia reciente y lecciones para América Latina

Crisis financieras : Experiencia reciente y lecciones para América Latina »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Charles Collyns , and G. Kincaid

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 June 2003

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062092.084

ISBN: 9781589062092

Basándose en la experiencia del FMI en el manejo de crisis financieras en todo el mundo en la última década, este estudio procura extraer enseñanzas que sean pertinentes para las dificultades que enfrentan los país...

Fiscal Vulnerability and Financial Crises in Emerging Market Economies

Fiscal Vulnerability and Financial Crises in Emerging Market Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Richard Hemming , Axel Schimmelpfennig , and Michael Kell

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 May 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061965.084

ISBN: 9781589061965

Keywords: Emerging markets, fiscal variables, public debt, currency crises, fiscal policy, external debt

Fiscal problems have long been considered a central feature of financial--that is, currency, debt, and banking--crises. This paper addresses four questions: What are the fiscal causes of crises? Which fiscal vulner...

Managing Financial Crises
			: Recent Experience and Lessons for Latin America

Managing Financial Crises : Recent Experience and Lessons for Latin America »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Kincaid , and Charles Collyns

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 April 2003

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589062085.084

ISBN: 9781589062085

Keywords: Latin America, monetary policy, inflation, banking, debt restructuring, central bank

This paper seeks to draw lessons from the IMF's experience in handling financial crises around the globe over the past ten years that are relevant to the challenges faced by countries in Latin America, especially i...

Advanced Country Experiences with Capital Account Liberalization

Advanced Country Experiences with Capital Account Liberalization »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Age Bakker , and Bryan Chapple

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 September 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061170.084

ISBN: 9781589061170

Keywords: exchange rate, capital controls, capital account liberalization, capital movements, capital inflows

After the industrial countries established current account convertibility in the late1950s, they began to phase out their capital controls. Their efforts were slow and tentative at first, but built up considerable...

Is the PRGF Living Up to Expectations?

Is the PRGF Living Up to Expectations? »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , Gabriela Inchauste , Nita Thacker , Thomas Dorsey , Shamsuddin Tareq , Emanuele Baldacci , Sanjeev Gupta , and Mark Plant

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 September 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061125.084

ISBN: 9781589061125

Keywords: conditionality, pem, poverty reduction, structural conditionality, public spending

In late 1999 the IMF established the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) to integrate the objectives of poverty reduction and growth more fully into its operations for the poorest countries, and to base th...

Yemen in the 1990s
			: From Unification to Economic Reform

Yemen in the 1990s : From Unification to Economic Reform »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Nada Choueiri , Klaus-Stefan Enders , Yuri Sobolev , Jan Walliser , and Sherwyn Williams

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 May 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060425.084

ISBN: 9781589060425

Keywords: foreign exchange, exchange rate, crude oil, oil prices, petroleum products

The 1990s saw the unification of the two Yemens into one nation and a burgeoning of the country's oil sector. This paper examines the structural changes in the Yemeni economy brought about by these and other develo...

Improving Large Taxpayers' Compliance
			: A Review of Country Experience

Improving Large Taxpayers' Compliance : A Review of Country Experience »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Olivier Benon , Katherine Baer , and Juan Toro R.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 April 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061187.084

ISBN: 9781589061187

Keywords: Taxes, Taxation, tax administration, large taxpayers, tax collection, tax administrations, taxpayer compliance

One area that has not been reviewed in developing countries is the growing focus on different segments of the taxpayer population-including the large taxpayers-as a way to encourage greater stability in public reve...

The Baltic Countries
			: Medium-Term Fiscal Issues Related to EU and NATO Accession

The Baltic Countries : Medium-Term Fiscal Issues Related to EU and NATO Accession »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 April 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589061040.084

ISBN: 9781589061040

Keywords: fiscal policy, public debt, current account, expenditure, taxation

Ten years after regaining independence, the Baltic Countries--Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania--are expected to be invited to join the European Union (EU) and NATO in 2004. This paper provides a macroeconomic perspec...

Capital Account Liberalization and Financial Sector Stability

Capital Account Liberalization and Financial Sector Stability »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 12 April 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060852.084

ISBN: 9781589060852

Keywords: Financial sector, Capital account liberalization, capital flows, international capital, financial institutions

...

Financial Soundness Indicators
			: Analytical Aspects and Country Practices

Financial Soundness Indicators : Analytical Aspects and Country Practices »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 April 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060869.084

ISBN: 9781589060869

Keywords: Economic conditions, financial institutions, financial system, banking, capital adequacy, real estate

The financial turmoil of the late 1990s prompted a broad search for tools and techniques for detecting and preventing financial crises, and more recent episodes of instability have high lighted the importance of co...

IMF-Supported Programs in Capital Account Crises
			: Design and Experience

IMF-Supported Programs in Capital Account Crises : Design and Experience »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ales Bulir , Marianne Schulze-Gattas , Atish Ghosh , Alex Mourmouras , A. Hamann , and Timothy Lane

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 February 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060821.084

ISBN: 9781589060821

Keywords: Capital flows, Financial sector, capital outflows, current account, private capital flows, capital inflows

...

The Dominican Republic
			: Stabilization, Structural Reform, and Economic Growth

The Dominican Republic : Stabilization, Structural Reform, and Economic Growth »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jaime Cardoso , and Philip Young

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 January 2002

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060463.084

ISBN: 9781589060463

Keywords: Economic growth

...

Methodology for Current Account and Exchange Rate Assessments

Methodology for Current Account and Exchange Rate Assessments »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): G. Kincaid , Martin Fetherston , Peter Isard , and Hamid Faruqee

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 December 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060814.084

ISBN: 9781589060814

Keywords: Current account balances, Exchange rates, current account, exchange rate, current account positions, real exchange rate

...

Malaysia
			: From Crisis to Recovery

Malaysia : From Crisis to Recovery »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Yougesh Khatri , Il Lee , O. Liu , Kanitta Meesook , and Natalia Tamirisa

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 August 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060470.084

ISBN: 9781589060470

Keywords: banking, fiscal policy, bank negara malaysia, capital controls, financial sector

...

Stabilization and Savings Funds for Nonrenewable Resources

Stabilization and Savings Funds for Nonrenewable Resources »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Rolando Ossowski , Steven Barnett , James Daniel , and Jeffrey Davis

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 April 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060197.084

ISBN: 9781589060197

...

Monetary Union in West Africa (ECOWAS)

Monetary Union in West Africa (ECOWAS) »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Catherine Pattillo , and Paul Masson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 14 February 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589060142.084

ISBN: 9781589060142

...

Modern Banking and OTC Derivatives Markets
			: The Transformation of Global Finance and its Implications for Systemic Risk

Modern Banking and OTC Derivatives Markets : The Transformation of Global Finance and its Implications for Systemic Risk »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Burkhard Drees , Garry Schinasi , Charles Kramer , and R. Craig

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 09 January 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557759993.084

ISBN: 9781557759993

Keywords: Banking systems, Markets

...

Pension Reform in the Baltics
			: Issues and Prospects

Pension Reform in the Baltics : Issues and Prospects »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jerald Schiff , Axel Schimmelpfennig , Niko Hobdari , and Roman Zytek

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 January 2001

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557759689.084

ISBN: 9781557759689

...

Adopting Inflation Targeting
			: Practical Issues for Emerging Market Countries

Adopting Inflation Targeting : Practical Issues for Emerging Market Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Mark Zelmer , and Andrea Schaechter

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 December 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557759917.084

ISBN: 9781557759917

Keywords: Emerging markets, Inflation targeting, inflation, monetary policy, central bank, inflation targeting framework

...

Developments and Challenges in the Caribbean Region

Developments and Challenges in the Caribbean Region »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Simon Cueva , Stephen Tokarick , Erik Lundback , Janet Stotsky , and Samuel Itam

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 December 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557759504.084

ISBN: 9781557759504

Keywords: Development strategy

...

Ghana
			: Economic Development in a Democratic Environment

Ghana : Economic Development in a Democratic Environment »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Joachim Harnack , Sérgio Leite , Stefania Fabrizio , Luisa Zanforlin , Girma Begashaw , and Anthony Pellechio

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 November 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557759603.084

ISBN: 9781557759603

Keywords: Development, Economic recovery

...

Setting Up Treasuries in the Baltics, Russia, and other Countries of the Former Soviet Union

Setting Up Treasuries in the Baltics, Russia, and other Countries of the Former Soviet Union »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jack Diamond , and Barry Potter

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557759474.084

ISBN: 9781557759474

Keywords: Former Soviet Union

...

Trade and Trade Policies in Eastern and Southern Africa

Trade and Trade Policies in Eastern and Southern Africa »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Arvind Subramanian

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 September 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557759429.084

ISBN: 9781557759429

Keywords: trade liberalization, monopoly, trade taxes, export taxes, export performance

Since the early 1990s, many countries in sub-Saharan Africa have made significant progress in opening their economies to external competition through trade and currency liberalization. This paper analyzes trade and...

The Eastern Caribbean Currency Union
			: Institutions, Performance, and Policy Issues

The Eastern Caribbean Currency Union : Institutions, Performance, and Policy Issues »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ruby Randall , Jorge Shepherd , Frits Van Beek , J. Rosales , and Mayra Zermeno

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 11 August 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758941.084

ISBN: 9781557758941

Keywords: loans, interest, treasury bills, banking, liabilities

The Eastern Caribbean Central Bank is one of just a few regional central banks in the world and the only one where the member countries have pooled all their foreign reserves, the convertability of the common curre...

Exchange Rate Regimes in an Increasingly Integrated World Economy

Exchange Rate Regimes in an Increasingly Integrated World Economy »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Andrew Berg , Paolo Mauro , Michael Mussa , Alexander Swoboda , Esteban Jadresic , and Paul Masson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 August 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758927.084

ISBN: 9781557758927

Keywords: exchange rate, exchange rates, exchange rate regime, exchange rate regimes, transition countries

This paper examines the consequences of heightened capital mobility and of the integration of developing economies in increasingly globalized markets for the exchange rate regimes of the industrial, developing, and...

Fiscal and Macroeconomic Impact of Privatization

Fiscal and Macroeconomic Impact of Privatization »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jeffrey Davis , Thomas Richardson , Rolando Ossowski , and Steven Barnett

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 June 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758880.084

ISBN: 9781557758880

Keywords: privatization, privatization proceeds, privatization receipts, public enterprises, privatization process

Privatization has been a key element of structural reform in many developing and transition economies during the last decade. This paper examines the fiscal and macroeconomic issues involved in the privatization of...

Capital Controls
			: Country Experiences with Their Use and Liberalization

Capital Controls : Country Experiences with Their Use and Liberalization »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Akira Ariyoshi , Andrei Kirilenko , Inci Ötker , Bernard Laurens , Jorge Canales Kriljenko , and Karl Habermeier

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 17 May 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758743.084

ISBN: 9781557758743

Keywords: capital inflows, exchange rate, capital controls, capital flows, foreign exchange

This paper examines country experiences with the use and liberalization of capital controls to develop a deeper understanding of the role of capital controls in coping with volatile capital flows, as well as the is...

Growth Experience in Transition Countries, 90-98

Growth Experience in Transition Countries, 90-98 »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 April 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758033.084

ISBN: 9781557758033

Keywords: transition economies, privatization, price liberalization, transition countries, export growth

This study, another in the series focusing on special issues in transition, reviews the experience of output decline and recovery in the 25 countries of eastern and central Europe and the Baltics, Russia, and other...

Macroprudential Indicators of Financial System Soundness

Macroprudential Indicators of Financial System Soundness »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Paul Hilbers , Alfredo Leone , Mahinder Gill , and Owen Evens

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 April 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758910.084

ISBN: 9781557758910

Keywords: financial institutions, banking, financial system, financial sector, standards

Following the severe financial crises of the 1990s, identifying and assessing financial sector vulnerabilities has become a key priority of the international community. The costly disruptions in global markets unde...

Philippines
			: Toward Sustainable and Rapid Growth

Philippines : Toward Sustainable and Rapid Growth »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Markus Rodlauer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758613.084

ISBN: 9781557758613

Keywords: banking, central bank, inflation, monetary policy, monetary fund

This Occasional Paper discusses the policies behind the favorable economic performance of the Philippines during the 1990s, when it emerged from a long period of slow growth and economic imbalances and managed to e...

Current Account and External Sustainability in the Baltics, Russia, and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union

Current Account and External Sustainability in the Baltics, Russia, and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Donal McGettigan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 February 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758262.084

ISBN: 9781557758262

Keywords: current account, debt, debt service, external debt, deficits

Large current account imbalances have been recorded in the Baltics, Russia, and other countries of the former Soviet Union since their independence. Are these current account positions sustainable, reflecting the s...

Anticipating Balance of Payments Crises--The Role of Early Warning Systems
			: The Role of Early Warning Systems

Anticipating Balance of Payments Crises--The Role of Early Warning Systems : The Role of Early Warning Systems »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Catherine Pattillo , Andrew Berg , Gian Milesi-Ferretti , and Eduardo Borensztein

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 January 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758286.084

ISBN: 9781557758286

Keywords: currency crises, probability, balance of payments, contagion, currency crisis

Recent years have witnessed an increase in the frequency of currency and balance of payments crises in developing countries. More important, the crises have become more virulent, have caused widespread disruption t...

Financial Sector Crisis and Restructuring
			: Lessons from Asia:  Lessons from Asia

Financial Sector Crisis and Restructuring : Lessons from Asia: Lessons from Asia »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Leslie Teo , Charles Enoch , Carl-Johan Lindgren , Tomás Baliño , Anne Gulde , and Marc Quintyn

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 21 January 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758712.084

ISBN: 9781557758712

Keywords: restructuring, loans, banking, debt, asset management

This paper reviews the policy responses of Indonesia, Korea, and Thailand to the Asian crisis that erupted in 1997 and compares the actions of these three countries with those of Malaysia and the Philippines, which...

Social Issues in IMF-Supported Programs

Social Issues in IMF-Supported Programs »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Ritha Khemani , Sanjeev Gupta , Calvin McDonald , Louis Dicks-Mireaux , and Marijn Verhoeven

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 13 January 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557758736.084

ISBN: 9781557758736

Keywords: health care, social safety nets, health care spending, safety nets, public spending

As part of its mandate, the IMF seeks to create the conditions necessary for sustained high-quality growth, which encompasses a broad range of elements. These include sound macroeconomic policies, growth-enhancing...