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The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: China Financial Publishing House (CFPH)

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

2. Introducción

2. Introducción »

Source: Los regímenes de tipo de cambio y la estabilidad del sistema monetario internacional

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 November 2014

Language: Spanish

ISBN: 9781498324076

Keywords: Exchange rate regimes, Financial stability, International monetary system, Reserve currencies, Reserves accumulation, Trade integration, tipo de cambio, régimen de tipo de cambio, tipos de cambio, tipo de cambio real

Todos los países miembros del Fondo Monetario Internacional colaboran con la institución y entre sí para “establecer regímenes de cambio ordenados y promover un sistema estable de t...

Los regímenes de tipo de cambio y la estabilidad del sistema monetario internacional

Los regímenes de tipo de cambio y la estabilidad del sistema monetario internacional »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 November 2014

Language: Spanish

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781498324076.084

ISBN: 9781498324076

Keywords: Exchange rate regimes, Financial stability, International monetary system, Reserve currencies, Reserves accumulation, Trade integration, tipo de cambio, régimen de tipo de cambio, tipos de cambio, tipo de cambio real

Los países miembros del Fondo Monetario Internacional colaboran para asegurar que los regímenes cambiarios funcionen ordenadamente y para fomentar la estabilidad del sistema cambiario, reconociendo que el objetivo...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Los regímenes de tipo de cambio y la estabilidad del sistema monetario internacional

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 November 2014

Language: Spanish

ISBN: 9781498324076

Keywords: Exchange rate regimes, Financial stability, International monetary system, Reserve currencies, Reserves accumulation, Trade integration, tipo de cambio, régimen de tipo de cambio, tipos de cambio, tipo de cambio real

Los países miembros del Fondo Monetario Internacional colaboran para asegurar que los regímenes cambiarios funcionen ordenadamente y para fomentar la estabilidad del sistema cambiario, reconociendo que el objetivo...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Los regímenes de tipo de cambio y la estabilidad del sistema monetario internacional

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 November 2014

Language: Spanish

ISBN: 9781498324076

Keywords: Exchange rate regimes, Financial stability, International monetary system, Reserve currencies, Reserves accumulation, Trade integration, tipo de cambio, régimen de tipo de cambio, tipos de cambio, tipo de cambio real

Los países miembros del Fondo Monetario Internacional colaboran para asegurar que los regímenes cambiarios funcionen ordenadamente y para fomentar la estabilidad del sistema cambiario, reconociendo que el objetivo...

1. Panorama general

1. Panorama general »

Source: Los regímenes de tipo de cambio y la estabilidad del sistema monetario internacional

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 26 November 2014

Language: Spanish

ISBN: 9781498324076

Keywords: Exchange rate regimes, Financial stability, International monetary system, Reserve currencies, Reserves accumulation, Trade integration, tipo de cambio, régimen de tipo de cambio, tipos de cambio, tipo de cambio real

Este estudio examina la estabilidad del sistema general de tipos de cambio en función de tres dimensiones: ¿Ayuda el régimen cambiario seleccionado por cada país a alcanzar las meta...

Annex 2: Panel Regression on the Determinants of Long-Term Growth

Annex 2: Panel Regression on the Determinants of Long-Term Growth »

Source: The Economic Impact of IMF-Supported Programs in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Yasemin Bal Gunduz , Christian Ebeke , Burcu Hacibedel , Linda Kaltani , Vera Kehayova , Chris Lane , Christian Mumssen , Nkunde Mwase , and Joseph Thornton

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 2013

ISBN: 9781484394717

Keywords: Economic growth, Emergency financing mechanism, Extended Credit Facility, Fund-supported adjustment programs, Low-income developing countries, balance of payments, debt relief, current account, external shocks, current account balance

The impact of IMF-supported programs on per capita GDP growth also addresses the selection issue and is computed using two-way fixed-effects models for panel data. All regression specifications control for t...

Annex 1: Propensity Score Matching Methodology

Annex 1: Propensity Score Matching Methodology »

Source: The Economic Impact of IMF-Supported Programs in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Yasemin Bal Gunduz , Christian Ebeke , Burcu Hacibedel , Linda Kaltani , Vera Kehayova , Chris Lane , Christian Mumssen , Nkunde Mwase , and Joseph Thornton

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 2013

ISBN: 9781484394717

Keywords: Economic growth, Emergency financing mechanism, Extended Credit Facility, Fund-supported adjustment programs, Low-income developing countries, balance of payments, debt relief, current account, external shocks, current account balance

Addressing Selection Bias—Alternative Approaches The literature on the impact of IMF-supported programs has used various approaches to address sample selection bias, with the aim of...

The Economic Impact of IMF-Supported Programs in Low-Income Countries

The Economic Impact of IMF-Supported Programs in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Yasemin Bal Gunduz , Christian Ebeke , Burcu Hacibedel , Linda Kaltani , Vera Kehayova , Chris Lane , Christian Mumssen , Nkunde Mwase , and Joseph Thornton

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781484394717.084

ISBN: 9781484394717

Keywords: Economic growth, Emergency financing mechanism, Extended Credit Facility, Fund-supported adjustment programs, Low-income developing countries, balance of payments, debt relief, current account, external shocks, current account balance

This paper aims to assess the economic impact of the IMF's support through its facilities for low-income countries. It relies on two complementary econometric analyses: the first investigates the longer-term impact...

4. Lessons for Future IMF Engagement in Low-Income Countries

4. Lessons for Future IMF Engagement in Low-Income Countries »

Source: The Economic Impact of IMF-Supported Programs in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Yasemin Bal Gunduz , Christian Ebeke , Burcu Hacibedel , Linda Kaltani , Vera Kehayova , Chris Lane , Christian Mumssen , Nkunde Mwase , and Joseph Thornton

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 2013

ISBN: 9781484394717

Keywords: Economic growth, Emergency financing mechanism, Extended Credit Facility, Fund-supported adjustment programs, Low-income developing countries, balance of payments, debt relief, current account, external shocks, current account balance

While the balance of evidence suggests that the IMF has in most cases played a helpful role in supporting growth and reducing poverty in its LIC members, it is also clear that, with over 900 million people w...

1. Overview

1. Overview »

Source: The Economic Impact of IMF-Supported Programs in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Yasemin Bal Gunduz , Christian Ebeke , Burcu Hacibedel , Linda Kaltani , Vera Kehayova , Chris Lane , Christian Mumssen , Nkunde Mwase , and Joseph Thornton

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 2013

ISBN: 9781484394717

Keywords: Economic growth, Emergency financing mechanism, Extended Credit Facility, Fund-supported adjustment programs, Low-income developing countries, balance of payments, debt relief, current account, external shocks, current account balance

The last 25 years have witnessed a profound transformation in the economic fortunes of low-income countries (LICs). A marked improvement in macroeconomic policies has resulted in improved fiscal performance,...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: The Economic Impact of IMF-Supported Programs in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Yasemin Bal Gunduz , Christian Ebeke , Burcu Hacibedel , Linda Kaltani , Vera Kehayova , Chris Lane , Christian Mumssen , Nkunde Mwase , and Joseph Thornton

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 2013

ISBN: 9781484394717

Keywords: Economic growth, Emergency financing mechanism, Extended Credit Facility, Fund-supported adjustment programs, Low-income developing countries, balance of payments, debt relief, current account, external shocks, current account balance

This paper aims to assess the economic impact of the IMF's support through its facilities for low-income countries. It relies on two complementary econometric analyses: the first investigates the longer-term impact...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: The Economic Impact of IMF-Supported Programs in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Yasemin Bal Gunduz , Christian Ebeke , Burcu Hacibedel , Linda Kaltani , Vera Kehayova , Chris Lane , Christian Mumssen , Nkunde Mwase , and Joseph Thornton

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 2013

ISBN: 9781484394717

Keywords: Economic growth, Emergency financing mechanism, Extended Credit Facility, Fund-supported adjustment programs, Low-income developing countries, balance of payments, debt relief, current account, external shocks, current account balance

This paper aims to assess the economic impact of the IMF's support through its facilities for low-income countries. It relies on two complementary econometric analyses: the first investigates the longer-term impact...

2. The Evolution of IMF Program Engagement

2. The Evolution of IMF Program Engagement »

Source: The Economic Impact of IMF-Supported Programs in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Yasemin Bal Gunduz , Christian Ebeke , Burcu Hacibedel , Linda Kaltani , Vera Kehayova , Chris Lane , Christian Mumssen , Nkunde Mwase , and Joseph Thornton

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 2013

ISBN: 9781484394717

Keywords: Economic growth, Emergency financing mechanism, Extended Credit Facility, Fund-supported adjustment programs, Low-income developing countries, balance of payments, debt relief, current account, external shocks, current account balance

This chapter reviews the evolution of the IMF’s financial engagement and policy support in LICs over the past quarter-century. 1 While program engagement constitutes the most inte...

3. The Impact of IMF Engagement in Low-Income Countries

3. The Impact of IMF Engagement in Low-Income Countries »

Source: The Economic Impact of IMF-Supported Programs in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Yasemin Bal Gunduz , Christian Ebeke , Burcu Hacibedel , Linda Kaltani , Vera Kehayova , Chris Lane , Christian Mumssen , Nkunde Mwase , and Joseph Thornton

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 04 October 2013

ISBN: 9781484394717

Keywords: Economic growth, Emergency financing mechanism, Extended Credit Facility, Fund-supported adjustment programs, Low-income developing countries, balance of payments, debt relief, current account, external shocks, current account balance

While there is a large literature on the macroeconomic consequences of IMF-supported programs, country samples have varied significantly across studies, and very few papers have focused exclusively on LICs....

3. Anatomy of External Shocks in Low-Income Countries

3. Anatomy of External Shocks in Low-Income Countries »

Source: Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

Although the potential growth and welfare costs of external shocks in LICs are well documented, the role of reserves in mitigating the impact of such shocks warrants further attention. An event study approac...

Appendix 3: Data and Robustness Analysis of Optimal Reserves

Appendix 3: Data and Robustness Analysis of Optimal Reserves »

Source: Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

This appendix discusses data sources for the regressions reported in Chapter 5, as well as the calibration exercise in Chapter 6, and reports robustness checks for the regression re...

Appendix 1: Data Sources and Definitions: Event Study Analysis

Appendix 1: Data Sources and Definitions: Event Study Analysis »

Source: Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

The event study analysis is based on a panel of 71 LICs (Table A1.1). The sample period spans from 1980 to 2007 for the analysis of past shock episodes and from 2007 to 2010 for the...

Appendix 2: Robustness Analysis

Appendix 2: Robustness Analysis »

Source: Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

This appendix provides a robustness check for the event study analysis using alternative definitions of shocks and related losses. In particular, shocks were redefined in terms of a...

Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616354121.084

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

Low-income countries routinely experience exogenous disturbances-sharp swings in the terms of trade, export demand, natural disasters, and volatile financial flows-that contribute to higher volatility in aggregate...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

Low-income countries routinely experience exogenous disturbances-sharp swings in the terms of trade, export demand, natural disasters, and volatile financial flows-that contribute to higher volatility in aggregate...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

Low-income countries routinely experience exogenous disturbances-sharp swings in the terms of trade, export demand, natural disasters, and volatile financial flows-that contribute to higher volatility in aggregate...

6. Calibrating Reserves for Country Groups

6. Calibrating Reserves for Country Groups »

Source: Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

Having estimated conditional probability of a crisis (P) and the cost of a crisis (C), this chapter elaborates on the calibration results. We first construct a benchmark calibration for various country group...

7. Conclusion

7. Conclusion »

Source: Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

The stylized facts presented in this study suggest that LICs are subject to a wide variety of external shocks that can have significant, enduring consequences for growth and economic welfare. Against this ba...

2. External Shocks and Macroeconomic Performance

2. External Shocks and Macroeconomic Performance »

Source: Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

Macroeconomic volatility in LICs reflects a high frequency of exogenous shocks. Real external shocks and natural disasters are more frequent in LICs compared with advanced and emerging market countries. An a...

1. Introduction

1. Introduction »

Source: Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

Low-income countries (LICs) are routinely faced with a wide range of exogenous disturbances—sharp swings in the terms of trade and export demand, natural disasters, and volatile financial flows—and the resul...

5. Optimal Precautionary Reserves

5. Optimal Precautionary Reserves »

Source: Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

Assessing reserve adequacy requires an understanding of the benefits of reserves in smoothing domestic consumption and absorption in response to external shocks, as well as the costs of holding reserves. In...

4. Stylized Facts

4. Stylized Facts »

Source: Assessing Reserve Adequacy in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Valerio Crispolti , Era Dabla-Norris , Jun Kim , Kazuko Shirono , and George Tsibouris

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 March 2013

ISBN: 9781616354121

Keywords: External shocks, reserve holdings, consumption growth, terms of trade, current account

This chapter provides an overview of recent developments in reserve accumulation in LICs. It also presents results of a reserve demand regression, which allows for a more systematic assessment of reserve hol...

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616354138.084

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Considerations for Pension Reform

Considerations for Pension Reform »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Pension reforms should (1) contribute to fiscal consolidation efforts, (2) address equity issues, and (3) support economic growth. The objective of public pensions is to provide retirement income security wi...

Historical Trends in Public Pension Expenditures

Historical Trends in Public Pension Expenditures »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

This chapter analyzes historical trends in public pension spending in advanced and emerging market economies. These trends must be observed against the backdrop of gradual population aging. During 1970–2010...

The Outlook for Public Pension Spending

The Outlook for Public Pension Spending »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Population aging will accelerate markedly in advanced and emerging market economies over the coming decades and will put additional pressure on age-related spending for years to come. This chapter presents p...

Overview

Overview »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

This volume examines the outlook for pension spending over the coming decades, and options for reform. In advanced economies major rationalization of public spending, including on pensions, will in many case...

Overview of the Current Pension Landscape

Overview of the Current Pension Landscape »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Pension systems vary widely across advanced and emerging market economies. Differences include (but are not limited to) the respective roles of the public and private sectors in ensuring retirement income; w...

Pension Reform Options

Pension Reform Options »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

The risks associated with enacted reforms and the need for fiscal consolidation reinforce the importance of identifying additional measures to contain pension spending. The magnitude of the projected baselin...

Recent Pension Reform Initiatives

Recent Pension Reform Initiatives »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Many countries have initiated significant pension reform over the past decade. In advanced economies these reforms have been mainly of a parametric nature, involving future increases in the legal retirement...

Summary and Concluding Comments

Summary and Concluding Comments »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Summary of Issues and Policy Recommendations The need for pension reform varies across countries. Table 8.1 provides guidance on the need for reform and the main risks to the project...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 25 January 2013

ISBN: 9781616354138

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Government expenditures, Pension reforms, Pensions, pension, retirement, pension spending, public pension

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Appendix: Regime Classifications

Appendix: Regime Classifications »

Source: Exchange Rate Regimes and the Stability of the International Monetary System

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781589069312

Keywords: Exchange rate regimes, Financial stability, International monetary system, Reserve currencies, Reserves accumulation, Trade integration, exchange rate, exchange rate regime, exchange rates, real exchange rate

Any empirical study of exchange rate regimes must contend with issues of regime classification. Early work used a de jure classification—the regime declared by national authorities...

5 Conclusions

5 Conclusions »

Source: Exchange Rate Regimes and the Stability of the International Monetary System

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781589069312

Keywords: Exchange rate regimes, Financial stability, International monetary system, Reserve currencies, Reserves accumulation, Trade integration, exchange rate, exchange rate regime, exchange rates, real exchange rate

Each member country of the International Monetary Fund undertakes to collaborate with the IMF and other members to ensure orderly exchange arrangements and promote a stable system of exchange rates. This goa...

3 Countries’ Choice of Exchange Rate Regime

3 Countries’ Choice of Exchange Rate Regime »

Source: Exchange Rate Regimes and the Stability of the International Monetary System

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781589069312

Keywords: Exchange rate regimes, Financial stability, International monetary system, Reserve currencies, Reserves accumulation, Trade integration, exchange rate, exchange rate regime, exchange rates, real exchange rate

Although exchange rate policy is just one facet of a country’s overall set of macroeconomic policies, an appropriate choice of exchange rate regime can help the country meet particular macroeconomic goals. T...

3 Empirical Analysis of the Current Account1

3 Empirical Analysis of the Current Account1 »

Source: External Performance in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

This chapter analyzes the medium-term relationship between the current account and a set of fundamentals. Following the existing literature, the estimations consist of ordinary least squares or fixed-effect...

5 Empirical Analysis of the Net Foreign Assets Position1

5 Empirical Analysis of the Net Foreign Assets Position1 »

Source: External Performance in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

This chapter empirically investigates the net foreign assets position of low-income countries. The estimation relies on an unbalanced panel of annual data covering 1980–2006. As with the real exchange rate,...

4 Empirical Analysis of the Real Exchange Rate1

4 Empirical Analysis of the Real Exchange Rate1 »

Source: External Performance in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

This chapter investigates the long-run relationship between the real effective exchange rate and a set of fundamentals. The estimation relies on an unbalanced panel of annual data covering 1980–2006. Panel u...

Exchange Rate Regimes and the Stability of the International Monetary System

Exchange Rate Regimes and the Stability of the International Monetary System »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069312.084

ISBN: 9781589069312

Keywords: Exchange rate regimes, Financial stability, International monetary system, Reserve currencies, Reserves accumulation, Trade integration, exchange rate, exchange rate regime, exchange rates, real exchange rate

The member countries of the International Monetary Fund collaborate to try to assure orderly exchange arrangements and promote a stable system of exchange rates, recognizing that the essential purpose of the intern...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Exchange Rate Regimes and the Stability of the International Monetary System

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781589069312

Keywords: Exchange rate regimes, Financial stability, International monetary system, Reserve currencies, Reserves accumulation, Trade integration, exchange rate, exchange rate regime, exchange rates, real exchange rate

The member countries of the International Monetary Fund collaborate to try to assure orderly exchange arrangements and promote a stable system of exchange rates, recognizing that the essential purpose of the intern...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Exchange Rate Regimes and the Stability of the International Monetary System

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781589069312

Keywords: Exchange rate regimes, Financial stability, International monetary system, Reserve currencies, Reserves accumulation, Trade integration, exchange rate, exchange rate regime, exchange rates, real exchange rate

The member countries of the International Monetary Fund collaborate to try to assure orderly exchange arrangements and promote a stable system of exchange rates, recognizing that the essential purpose of the intern...

External Performance in Low-Income Countries

External Performance in Low-Income Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781616350536.084

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

Assessments of exchange rate misalignments and external imbalances for low-income countries are challenging because methodologies developed for advanced and emerging economies cannot be automatically applied to poo...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: External Performance in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

Assessments of exchange rate misalignments and external imbalances for low-income countries are challenging because methodologies developed for advanced and emerging economies cannot be automatically applied to poo...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: External Performance in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

Assessments of exchange rate misalignments and external imbalances for low-income countries are challenging because methodologies developed for advanced and emerging economies cannot be automatically applied to poo...

6 Import and Export Elasticities

6 Import and Export Elasticities »

Source: External Performance in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

This chapter sets out the details of a methodology that can be used to calculate export supply and import demand elasticities without using econometrics. There is a long tradition in estimating trade elastic...

2 Introduction

2 Introduction »

Source: Exchange Rate Regimes and the Stability of the International Monetary System

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781589069312

Keywords: Exchange rate regimes, Financial stability, International monetary system, Reserve currencies, Reserves accumulation, Trade integration, exchange rate, exchange rate regime, exchange rates, real exchange rate

Each member country of the International Monetary Fund collaborates with the IMF and other members to “assure orderly exchange arrangements and promote a stable system of exchange rates,” recognizing that th...

2 Literature on the Main Determinants of External Balance

2 Literature on the Main Determinants of External Balance »

Source: External Performance in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

This chapter reviews the determinants of the real effective exchange rate and of the current account, with particular emphasis on factors that play an important role for lower-income countries. Toward the en...

1 Overview

1 Overview »

Source: External Performance in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

This paper empirically investigates the external balance of low-income countries (LICs) by offering a coherent analysis of determinants of medium- to long-term real exchange rates, current accounts, and net...

1 Overview

1 Overview »

Source: Exchange Rate Regimes and the Stability of the International Monetary System

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781589069312

Keywords: Exchange rate regimes, Financial stability, International monetary system, Reserve currencies, Reserves accumulation, Trade integration, exchange rate, exchange rate regime, exchange rates, real exchange rate

This paper reviews the stability of the overall system of exchange rates along three dimensions: Do individual countries’ choice of exchange rate regime help them achieve their domestic macroeconomic goals?...

4 Sources of Systemic Stress

4 Sources of Systemic Stress »

Source: Exchange Rate Regimes and the Stability of the International Monetary System

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Atish Ghosh , Jonathan Ostry , and Charalambos Tsangarides

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781589069312

Keywords: Exchange rate regimes, Financial stability, International monetary system, Reserve currencies, Reserves accumulation, Trade integration, exchange rate, exchange rate regime, exchange rates, real exchange rate

The discussion in Chapter 3 alluded to possible tensions between individual countries’ choice of regime and systemic stability. This chapter broadens the discussion by considering three interrelated but dist...

7 Trade Elasticities and the Exchange Rate

7 Trade Elasticities and the Exchange Rate »

Source: External Performance in Low-Income Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Alessandro Prati , Luca Ricci , Lone Engbo Christiansen , Stephen Tokarick , and Thierry Tressel

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2011

ISBN: 9781616350536

Keywords: External sector, Low-income developing countries, Real effective exchange rates, exchange rate, current account, real exchange rate, foreign assets, net foreign assets

Chapters 1 and 2 of this paper discussed the macrobalance approach, which is one method a researcher can use to determine the extent to which a country’s current account balance deviates from it...

4 Bolivia

4 Bolivia »

Source: Making Fiscal Decentralization Work : Cross-Country Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Annalisa Fedelino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

ISBN: 9781589069855

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Intergovernmental fiscal relations, decentralization, fiscal decentralization, subnational governments, intergovernmental fiscal, fiscal relations

In Bolivia, the initial drive behind the decentralization process was political. In the late 1980s—after decades of dictatorship and neglect of the poorest regions—a need emerged to...

5 China1

5 China1 »

Source: Making Fiscal Decentralization Work : Cross-Country Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Annalisa Fedelino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

ISBN: 9781589069855

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Intergovernmental fiscal relations, decentralization, fiscal decentralization, subnational governments, intergovernmental fiscal, fiscal relations

Fiscal decentralization since the early 1980s has supported economic growth and the process of transition to a market economy in China. However, China’s impressive performance has n...

6 Colombia1

6 Colombia1 »

Source: Making Fiscal Decentralization Work : Cross-Country Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Annalisa Fedelino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

ISBN: 9781589069855

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Intergovernmental fiscal relations, decentralization, fiscal decentralization, subnational governments, intergovernmental fiscal, fiscal relations

Colombia is a unitary country at a relatively advanced stage of decentralization. Colombia’s decentralization process began in the early 1980s and was reinforced by the 1991 constit...

7 Democratic Republic of the Congo1

7 Democratic Republic of the Congo1 »

Source: Making Fiscal Decentralization Work : Cross-Country Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Annalisa Fedelino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

ISBN: 9781589069855

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Intergovernmental fiscal relations, decentralization, fiscal decentralization, subnational governments, intergovernmental fiscal, fiscal relations

Fiscal decentralization in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has been viewed as a way to hold a vast and diverse country together following a long civil war. The country—divided...

1 Fiscal Decentralization: Key Issues

1 Fiscal Decentralization: Key Issues »

Source: Making Fiscal Decentralization Work : Cross-Country Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Annalisa Fedelino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

ISBN: 9781589069855

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Intergovernmental fiscal relations, decentralization, fiscal decentralization, subnational governments, intergovernmental fiscal, fiscal relations

A Brief Literature Review Fiscal decentralization involves a redefinition of the roles and responsibilities of the various levels of government in the conduct of fiscal policy. Tradi...

8 Indonesia

8 Indonesia »

Source: Making Fiscal Decentralization Work : Cross-Country Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Annalisa Fedelino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

ISBN: 9781589069855

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Intergovernmental fiscal relations, decentralization, fiscal decentralization, subnational governments, intergovernmental fiscal, fiscal relations

Indonesia is often cited as an example of a “big-bang” approach to fiscal decentralization. Until the late 1990s, Indonesia’s decentralization efforts had proved timid, with deconce...

9 Kosovo1

9 Kosovo1 »

Source: Making Fiscal Decentralization Work : Cross-Country Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Annalisa Fedelino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

ISBN: 9781589069855

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Intergovernmental fiscal relations, decentralization, fiscal decentralization, subnational governments, intergovernmental fiscal, fiscal relations

Fiscal decentralization in Kosovo has been, and remains, a political priority. Inspired by the Comprehensive Settlement Proposal (CSP), 2 a signifi...

3 Lessons Learned and Challenges Ahead

3 Lessons Learned and Challenges Ahead »

Source: Making Fiscal Decentralization Work : Cross-Country Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Annalisa Fedelino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

ISBN: 9781589069855

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Intergovernmental fiscal relations, decentralization, fiscal decentralization, subnational governments, intergovernmental fiscal, fiscal relations

The design of intergovernmental fiscal arrangements is one of the more complex areas of public finance—it spans a number of policy and institution-building issues requiring careful...

10 Liberia

10 Liberia »

Source: Making Fiscal Decentralization Work : Cross-Country Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Annalisa Fedelino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

ISBN: 9781589069855

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Intergovernmental fiscal relations, decentralization, fiscal decentralization, subnational governments, intergovernmental fiscal, fiscal relations

Liberia has historically been a very centralized country. 1 Political decision making was primarily concentrated in the capital Monrovia, creating...

Making Fiscal Decentralization Work
			: Cross-Country Experiences

Making Fiscal Decentralization Work : Cross-Country Experiences »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Annalisa Fedelino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589069855.084

ISBN: 9781589069855

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Intergovernmental fiscal relations, decentralization, fiscal decentralization, subnational governments, intergovernmental fiscal, fiscal relations

The question of what makes fiscal decentralization work is faced by many policymakers around the world. This book draws on both the relevant literature and policy and technical advice provided by the IMF to a wide...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Making Fiscal Decentralization Work : Cross-Country Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Annalisa Fedelino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

ISBN: 9781589069855

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Intergovernmental fiscal relations, decentralization, fiscal decentralization, subnational governments, intergovernmental fiscal, fiscal relations

The question of what makes fiscal decentralization work is faced by many policymakers around the world. This book draws on both the relevant literature and policy and technical advice provided by the IMF to a wide...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Making Fiscal Decentralization Work : Cross-Country Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Annalisa Fedelino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

ISBN: 9781589069855

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Intergovernmental fiscal relations, decentralization, fiscal decentralization, subnational governments, intergovernmental fiscal, fiscal relations

The question of what makes fiscal decentralization work is faced by many policymakers around the world. This book draws on both the relevant literature and policy and technical advice provided by the IMF to a wide...

12 Mexico

12 Mexico »

Source: Making Fiscal Decentralization Work : Cross-Country Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Annalisa Fedelino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

ISBN: 9781589069855

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Intergovernmental fiscal relations, decentralization, fiscal decentralization, subnational governments, intergovernmental fiscal, fiscal relations

Mexico’s constitution provides for a federal system characterized by a complex network of intergovernmental fiscal relations. The federation includes the Federal District, 31 states...

13 Nigeria

13 Nigeria »

Source: Making Fiscal Decentralization Work : Cross-Country Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Annalisa Fedelino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

ISBN: 9781589069855

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Intergovernmental fiscal relations, decentralization, fiscal decentralization, subnational governments, intergovernmental fiscal, fiscal relations

Nigeria is a federal state in which high reliance on volatile oil revenue has complicated intergovernmental fiscal relations. The conflicting demands for control of the oil revenues...

11 The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia1

11 The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia1 »

Source: Making Fiscal Decentralization Work : Cross-Country Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Annalisa Fedelino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

ISBN: 9781589069855

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Intergovernmental fiscal relations, decentralization, fiscal decentralization, subnational governments, intergovernmental fiscal, fiscal relations

Despite significant political changes in the 1990s, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYR Macedonia) remained a largely centralized country. The 1991 constitution (enacted...

2 The IMF’s Advice on Designing and Managing Fiscal Decentralization

2 The IMF’s Advice on Designing and Managing Fiscal Decentralization »

Source: Making Fiscal Decentralization Work : Cross-Country Experiences

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Annalisa Fedelino

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 October 2010

ISBN: 9781589069855

Keywords: Cross country analysis, Fiscal policy, Fiscal reforms, Intergovernmental fiscal relations, decentralization, fiscal decentralization, subnational governments, intergovernmental fiscal, fiscal relations

Anecessary, albeit not sufficient, condition for fiscal discipline is a broad plan to match spending responsibilities with overall resources at each level of government. Therefore,...

I Executive Summary

I Executive Summary »

Source: The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies : Targeting Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Anna Nordstrom , Scott Roger , Mark Stone , Seiichi Shimizu , Turgut Kisinbay , and Jorge Restrepo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2009

ISBN: 9781589067967

Keywords: Developing countries, Central bank role, Emerging markets, Exchange rates, Inflation targeting, exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy

The exchange rate plays a more important role in monetary policy for emerging economies that have adopted inflation targeting than for their advanced economy counterparts. Inflation-targeting emerging econom...

II Introduction

II Introduction »

Source: The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies : Targeting Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Anna Nordstrom , Scott Roger , Mark Stone , Seiichi Shimizu , Turgut Kisinbay , and Jorge Restrepo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2009

ISBN: 9781589067967

Keywords: Developing countries, Central bank role, Emerging markets, Exchange rates, Inflation targeting, exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy

The exchange rate plays a larger role in monetary policy for inflation-targeting emerging economies than for inflation-targeting advanced economies. Inflation-targeting emerging economies have less flexible...

III Why the Exchange Rate Plays a Large Role in Emerging Economies

III Why the Exchange Rate Plays a Large Role in Emerging Economies »

Source: The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies : Targeting Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Anna Nordstrom , Scott Roger , Mark Stone , Seiichi Shimizu , Turgut Kisinbay , and Jorge Restrepo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2009

ISBN: 9781589067967

Keywords: Developing countries, Central bank role, Emerging markets, Exchange rates, Inflation targeting, exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy

This section addresses why the exchange rate plays a more important policy and operational role for emerging economies than for advanced economies. In short, the channels between the exchange rate and econom...

IV Different Roles for the Exchange Rate and the Policy Trade-Offs

IV Different Roles for the Exchange Rate and the Policy Trade-Offs »

Source: The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies : Targeting Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Anna Nordstrom , Scott Roger , Mark Stone , Seiichi Shimizu , Turgut Kisinbay , and Jorge Restrepo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2009

ISBN: 9781589067967

Keywords: Developing countries, Central bank role, Emerging markets, Exchange rates, Inflation targeting, exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy

This section uses a model-based approach to evaluate the performance of different inflation-targeting approaches. 9 First, a taxonomy of inflation-targeting approaches is develope...

IX Case Studies in the Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies

IX Case Studies in the Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies »

Source: The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies : Targeting Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Anna Nordstrom , Scott Roger , Mark Stone , Seiichi Shimizu , Turgut Kisinbay , and Jorge Restrepo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2009

ISBN: 9781589067967

Keywords: Developing countries, Central bank role, Emerging markets, Exchange rates, Inflation targeting, exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy

This section chronicles exchange rate management practices of selected inflation-targeting emerging economies and emerging economies with other anchors. The case studies focus on recent episodes involving te...

The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies
			: Targeting Emerging Economies

The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies : Targeting Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Anna Nordstrom , Scott Roger , Mark Stone , Seiichi Shimizu , Turgut Kisinbay , and Jorge Restrepo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067967.084

ISBN: 9781589067967

Keywords: Developing countries, Central bank role, Emerging markets, Exchange rates, Inflation targeting, exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy

This paper explores the role of exchange rates in emerging economies with inflation-targeting regimes, an issue that has become especially germane during the current episode of financial turmoil and volatile capita...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies : Targeting Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Anna Nordstrom , Scott Roger , Mark Stone , Seiichi Shimizu , Turgut Kisinbay , and Jorge Restrepo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2009

ISBN: 9781589067967

Keywords: Developing countries, Central bank role, Emerging markets, Exchange rates, Inflation targeting, exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy

This paper explores the role of exchange rates in emerging economies with inflation-targeting regimes, an issue that has become especially germane during the current episode of financial turmoil and volatile capita...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies : Targeting Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Anna Nordstrom , Scott Roger , Mark Stone , Seiichi Shimizu , Turgut Kisinbay , and Jorge Restrepo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2009

ISBN: 9781589067967

Keywords: Developing countries, Central bank role, Emerging markets, Exchange rates, Inflation targeting, exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy

This paper explores the role of exchange rates in emerging economies with inflation-targeting regimes, an issue that has become especially germane during the current episode of financial turmoil and volatile capita...

V Foreign Exchange Market Intervention in Inflation-Targeting Policy Implementation

V Foreign Exchange Market Intervention in Inflation-Targeting Policy Implementation »

Source: The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies : Targeting Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Anna Nordstrom , Scott Roger , Mark Stone , Seiichi Shimizu , Turgut Kisinbay , and Jorge Restrepo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2009

ISBN: 9781589067967

Keywords: Developing countries, Central bank role, Emerging markets, Exchange rates, Inflation targeting, exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy

This section documents the role of foreign exchange market intervention in inflation-targeting policy implementation and makes some positive recommendations for inflation-targeting emerging economies. The pr...

VI Transitioning to Full-Fledged Inflation Targeting

VI Transitioning to Full-Fledged Inflation Targeting »

Source: The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies : Targeting Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Anna Nordstrom , Scott Roger , Mark Stone , Seiichi Shimizu , Turgut Kisinbay , and Jorge Restrepo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2009

ISBN: 9781589067967

Keywords: Developing countries, Central bank role, Emerging markets, Exchange rates, Inflation targeting, exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy

This section addresses how the role of the exchange rate can be designed to facilitate the transition to inflation targeting for emerging economies. Many emerging economies with other anchors are transitioni...

VII Implications of Recent Global Shocks

VII Implications of Recent Global Shocks »

Source: The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies : Targeting Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Anna Nordstrom , Scott Roger , Mark Stone , Seiichi Shimizu , Turgut Kisinbay , and Jorge Restrepo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2009

ISBN: 9781589067967

Keywords: Developing countries, Central bank role, Emerging markets, Exchange rates, Inflation targeting, exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy

This section discusses the implications of the two recent global shocks for the role of the exchange rate in inflation-targeting emerging economies. The inflation episode of 2007–08 and the global financial...

VIII Conclusions

VIII Conclusions »

Source: The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies : Targeting Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Anna Nordstrom , Scott Roger , Mark Stone , Seiichi Shimizu , Turgut Kisinbay , and Jorge Restrepo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2009

ISBN: 9781589067967

Keywords: Developing countries, Central bank role, Emerging markets, Exchange rates, Inflation targeting, exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy

The role of the exchange rate in the broad monetary framework for inflation-targeting emerging economies raises four questions, which are addressed in turn in this section:...

X Foreign Exchange Intervention Practices: Selected Cases

X Foreign Exchange Intervention Practices: Selected Cases »

Source: The Role of the Exchange Rate in Inflation-Targeting Emerging Economies : Targeting Emerging Economies

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Anna Nordstrom , Scott Roger , Mark Stone , Seiichi Shimizu , Turgut Kisinbay , and Jorge Restrepo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 24 November 2009

ISBN: 9781589067967

Keywords: Developing countries, Central bank role, Emerging markets, Exchange rates, Inflation targeting, exchange rate, foreign exchange, inflation, monetary policy

This section chronicles the foreign exchange market intervention practices of selected inflation-targeting emerging economies and emerging economies with other anchors. The first subsection offers detailed c...

Appendix Data, Sources, and Methods

Appendix Data, Sources, and Methods »

Source: Structural Reforms and Economic Performance in Advanced and Developing Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , and Antonio Spilimbergo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2009

ISBN: 9781589068186

Keywords: Economic growth, Economic reforms, Financial sector, Developing countries, Developed countries, Capital account liberalization, Structural adjustment, Terms of trade, domestic financial sector, trade liberalization

Table A1. List of Economies in the Sample Low Income Middle Income...

I Overview

I Overview »

Source: Structural Reforms and Economic Performance in Advanced and Developing Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , and Antonio Spilimbergo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2009

ISBN: 9781589068186

Keywords: Economic growth, Economic reforms, Financial sector, Developing countries, Developed countries, Capital account liberalization, Structural adjustment, Terms of trade, domestic financial sector, trade liberalization

Economic policy agendas in member countries—even as they have been dominated over the past year by the response to the global financial crisis—will, going forward, increasingly need to refocus on core issues...

II Introduction

II Introduction »

Source: Structural Reforms and Economic Performance in Advanced and Developing Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , and Antonio Spilimbergo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2009

ISBN: 9781589068186

Keywords: Economic growth, Economic reforms, Financial sector, Developing countries, Developed countries, Capital account liberalization, Structural adjustment, Terms of trade, domestic financial sector, trade liberalization

Even though economic policies in both developed and developing countries have been dominated for much of the past year by the response to the global financial crisis, going forward, countries wi...

III Structural Reforms: Measurement and Trends

III Structural Reforms: Measurement and Trends »

Source: Structural Reforms and Economic Performance in Advanced and Developing Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , and Antonio Spilimbergo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2009

ISBN: 9781589068186

Keywords: Economic growth, Economic reforms, Financial sector, Developing countries, Developed countries, Capital account liberalization, Structural adjustment, Terms of trade, domestic financial sector, trade liberalization

Structural reforms are a more elusive concept to measure than, say, the tenor of standard macroeconomic policies, where gauges—interest rates, liquidity measures, or the budgetary balance—are typically readi...

IV Determinants of Structural Reforms

IV Determinants of Structural Reforms »

Source: Structural Reforms and Economic Performance in Advanced and Developing Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , and Antonio Spilimbergo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2009

ISBN: 9781589068186

Keywords: Economic growth, Economic reforms, Financial sector, Developing countries, Developed countries, Capital account liberalization, Structural adjustment, Terms of trade, domestic financial sector, trade liberalization

The political economy literature has tended to emphasize that special interests, motivated by a desire to protect rents, may act to block the introduction of reforms that are beneficial for society at large....

Structural Reforms and Economic Performance in Advanced and Developing Countries

Structural Reforms and Economic Performance in Advanced and Developing Countries »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , and Antonio Spilimbergo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2009

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589068186.084

ISBN: 9781589068186

Keywords: Economic growth, Economic reforms, Financial sector, Developing countries, Developed countries, Capital account liberalization, Structural adjustment, Terms of trade, domestic financial sector, trade liberalization

This volume examines the impact on economic performance of structural policies-policies that increase the role of market forces and competition in the economy, while maintaining appropriate regulatory frameworks. T...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Structural Reforms and Economic Performance in Advanced and Developing Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , and Antonio Spilimbergo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2009

ISBN: 9781589068186

Keywords: Economic growth, Economic reforms, Financial sector, Developing countries, Developed countries, Capital account liberalization, Structural adjustment, Terms of trade, domestic financial sector, trade liberalization

This volume examines the impact on economic performance of structural policies-policies that increase the role of market forces and competition in the economy, while maintaining appropriate regulatory frameworks. T...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Structural Reforms and Economic Performance in Advanced and Developing Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , and Antonio Spilimbergo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2009

ISBN: 9781589068186

Keywords: Economic growth, Economic reforms, Financial sector, Developing countries, Developed countries, Capital account liberalization, Structural adjustment, Terms of trade, domestic financial sector, trade liberalization

This volume examines the impact on economic performance of structural policies-policies that increase the role of market forces and competition in the economy, while maintaining appropriate regulatory frameworks. T...

V Structural Reforms and Economic Growth

V Structural Reforms and Economic Growth »

Source: Structural Reforms and Economic Performance in Advanced and Developing Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , and Antonio Spilimbergo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2009

ISBN: 9781589068186

Keywords: Economic growth, Economic reforms, Financial sector, Developing countries, Developed countries, Capital account liberalization, Structural adjustment, Terms of trade, domestic financial sector, trade liberalization

There is a broad consensus in the literature that structural reforms, and in particular measures aimed at promoting domestic financial development and trade liberalization, can be important components of a s...

VI Sequencing Real and Financial Sector Reforms

VI Sequencing Real and Financial Sector Reforms »

Source: Structural Reforms and Economic Performance in Advanced and Developing Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , and Antonio Spilimbergo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2009

ISBN: 9781589068186

Keywords: Economic growth, Economic reforms, Financial sector, Developing countries, Developed countries, Capital account liberalization, Structural adjustment, Terms of trade, domestic financial sector, trade liberalization

The analysis so far has considered the impact of individual reforms, rather than packages of multiple reforms, on economic growth. In practice, policymakers will wish to act on the basis of a re...

VII Financial Sector Reforms and Resilience

VII Financial Sector Reforms and Resilience »

Source: Structural Reforms and Economic Performance in Advanced and Developing Countries

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Jonathan Ostry , Alessandro Prati , and Antonio Spilimbergo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 October 2009

ISBN: 9781589068186

Keywords: Economic growth, Economic reforms, Financial sector, Developing countries, Developed countries, Capital account liberalization, Structural adjustment, Terms of trade, domestic financial sector, trade liberalization

How do structural reforms and, in particular, financial sector reforms affect macroeconomic volatility and resilience? In principle, financial reforms should help buffer economies against the ef...