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APPENDIX 2. Case Studies: Characteristics of Tax Amnesty Programs

APPENDIX 2. Case Studies: Characteristics of Tax Amnesty Programs »

Source: Tax Amnesties : Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Eric Le Borgne , and Katherine Baer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2008

ISBN: 9781589067363

Keywords: tax administration, tax amnesty, tax amnesties, tax evasion, tax compliance

Kentucky Michigan Ireland...

APPENDIX 1. Ireland: How New Administrative Powers Helped Close Bogus Nonresident Accounts

APPENDIX 1. Ireland: How New Administrative Powers Helped Close Bogus Nonresident Accounts »

Source: Tax Amnesties : Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Eric Le Borgne , and Katherine Baer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2008

ISBN: 9781589067363

Keywords: tax administration, tax amnesty, tax amnesties, tax evasion, tax compliance

In 1998, a media exposé on widespread use of bogus foreign addresses by Irish bank depositors (to avoid withholding taxes on interest and reporting to the Irish Revenue) led to a major high-profile parliamen...

CHAPTER 5. Alternatives to Amnesties

CHAPTER 5. Alternatives to Amnesties »

Source: Tax Amnesties : Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Eric Le Borgne , and Katherine Baer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2008

ISBN: 9781589067363

Keywords: tax administration, tax amnesty, tax amnesties, tax evasion, tax compliance

The previous sections have highlighted some of the shortcomings of tax amnesties: (1) immediate gross revenue collection is, at best, limited to a low (single-digit) share of revenue collection; (2) short-te...

CHAPTER 6. Conclusions

CHAPTER 6. Conclusions »

Source: Tax Amnesties : Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Eric Le Borgne , and Katherine Baer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2008

ISBN: 9781589067363

Keywords: tax administration, tax amnesty, tax amnesties, tax evasion, tax compliance

Countries and states have introduced tax amnesties for a variety of reasons. Among the most common ones are (1) an immediate revenue need (e.g., during an economic downturn), (2) a desire to improve tax comp...

CHAPTER 2. Definition and Types of Amnesties

CHAPTER 2. Definition and Types of Amnesties »

Source: Tax Amnesties : Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Eric Le Borgne , and Katherine Baer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2008

ISBN: 9781589067363

Keywords: tax administration, tax amnesty, tax amnesties, tax evasion, tax compliance

Definition and Reasons for Amnesties Definition 3 A tax amnesty can be defined as a limited-ti...

CHAPTER 3. Economic Analysis

CHAPTER 3. Economic Analysis »

Source: Tax Amnesties : Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Eric Le Borgne , and Katherine Baer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2008

ISBN: 9781589067363

Keywords: tax administration, tax amnesty, tax amnesties, tax evasion, tax compliance

In this chapter we first give a heuristic intuition of the economic literature and modeling of tax amnesty. We then describe the key results of the literature. The Modeling of Tax Amnes...

CHAPTER 1. Introduction

CHAPTER 1. Introduction »

Source: Tax Amnesties : Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Eric Le Borgne , and Katherine Baer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2008

ISBN: 9781589067363

Keywords: tax administration, tax amnesty, tax amnesties, tax evasion, tax compliance

“Our new Constitution is now established, and has an appearance that promises permanency; but in this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.” (emphasis added)...

CHAPTER 4. Recent Trends and Evidence

CHAPTER 4. Recent Trends and Evidence »

Source: Tax Amnesties : Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Eric Le Borgne , and Katherine Baer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2008

ISBN: 9781589067363

Keywords: tax administration, tax amnesty, tax amnesties, tax evasion, tax compliance

In this section we analyze the recent trends in tax amnesties, and some evidence is provided regarding their revenue and compliance effects. The first section is devoted to a review of the econometric litera...

Tax Amnesties
			: Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives

Tax Amnesties : Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Eric Le Borgne , and Katherine Baer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067363.058

ISBN: 9781589067363

Keywords: tax administration, tax amnesty, tax amnesties, tax evasion, tax compliance

Tax amnesties remain as popular as ever as a tool for raising revenue and increasing tax compliance. International experience, however, shows that the costs of tax amnesty programs often exceed the programs' benefi...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Tax Amnesties : Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Eric Le Borgne , and Katherine Baer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2008

ISBN: 9781589067363

Keywords: tax administration, tax amnesty, tax amnesties, tax evasion, tax compliance

Tax amnesties remain as popular as ever as a tool for raising revenue and increasing tax compliance. International experience, however, shows that the costs of tax amnesty programs often exceed the programs' benefi...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Tax Amnesties : Theory, Trends, and Some Alternatives

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Eric Le Borgne , and Katherine Baer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 29 July 2008

ISBN: 9781589067363

Keywords: tax administration, tax amnesty, tax amnesties, tax evasion, tax compliance

Tax amnesties remain as popular as ever as a tool for raising revenue and increasing tax compliance. International experience, however, shows that the costs of tax amnesty programs often exceed the programs' benefi...

APPENDIX 1. Country Experiences with Scaled-Up Aid

APPENDIX 1. Country Experiences with Scaled-Up Aid »

Source: Fiscal Management of Scaled-Up Aid

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Fletcher , Sanjeev Gupta , Duncan Last , Gerd Schwartz , Shamsuddin Tareq , Richard Allen , and Isabell Adenauer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589067035

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, public expenditure, public spending, fiscal institutions

In the past, aid recipients often experienced sharp swings in aid flows. Net aid flows to Pakistan, for example, increased by a factor of 2.5 between 1997 and 2004, and nearly tripled to Ethiopia during the...

APPENDIX 2. Expenditure Efficiency—An Empirical Assessment

APPENDIX 2. Expenditure Efficiency—An Empirical Assessment »

Source: Fiscal Management of Scaled-Up Aid

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Fletcher , Sanjeev Gupta , Duncan Last , Gerd Schwartz , Shamsuddin Tareq , Richard Allen , and Isabell Adenauer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589067035

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, public expenditure, public spending, fiscal institutions

It will be essential for low-income countries to make efficient use of scaled-up aid to ensure sustained progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In particular, efficient spending in priority...

CHAPTER 3. Choosing an Expenditure Path

CHAPTER 3. Choosing an Expenditure Path »

Source: Fiscal Management of Scaled-Up Aid

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Fletcher , Sanjeev Gupta , Duncan Last , Gerd Schwartz , Shamsuddin Tareq , Richard Allen , and Isabell Adenauer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589067035

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, public expenditure, public spending, fiscal institutions

The IMF’s advice and program design encourage aid recipients to spend all aid fully and effectively. How much and how fast scaled-up aid should be spent over the medium term is a function of the following:...

CHAPTER 6. Conclusions

CHAPTER 6. Conclusions »

Source: Fiscal Management of Scaled-Up Aid

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Fletcher , Sanjeev Gupta , Duncan Last , Gerd Schwartz , Shamsuddin Tareq , Richard Allen , and Isabell Adenauer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589067035

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, public expenditure, public spending, fiscal institutions

Sound fiscal policies are critical for handling aid volatility as well as for making effective use of scaled-up aid and other flows. By easing resource constraints, these flows allow low-income countries to...

CHAPTER 4. Dealing with Aid Uncertainty and Volatility

CHAPTER 4. Dealing with Aid Uncertainty and Volatility »

Source: Fiscal Management of Scaled-Up Aid

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Fletcher , Sanjeev Gupta , Duncan Last , Gerd Schwartz , Shamsuddin Tareq , Richard Allen , and Isabell Adenauer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589067035

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, public expenditure, public spending, fiscal institutions

Aid volatility complicates fiscal policy implementation. Aid flows are more volatile than revenues (Bulíř and Hamann, 2007) and significantly more volatile than remittances (Gupta, Pattillo, and Wagh, 2007)....

CHAPTER 2. Establishing a Medium-Term Resource Envelope

CHAPTER 2. Establishing a Medium-Term Resource Envelope »

Source: Fiscal Management of Scaled-Up Aid

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Fletcher , Sanjeev Gupta , Duncan Last , Gerd Schwartz , Shamsuddin Tareq , Richard Allen , and Isabell Adenauer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589067035

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, public expenditure, public spending, fiscal institutions

The first step in establishing a medium-term resource envelope is to collect information on the intentions of official and private donors. Governments typically lack information on private aid flows, and a p...

CHAPTER 1. Introduction

CHAPTER 1. Introduction »

Source: Fiscal Management of Scaled-Up Aid

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Fletcher , Sanjeev Gupta , Duncan Last , Gerd Schwartz , Shamsuddin Tareq , Richard Allen , and Isabell Adenauer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589067035

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, public expenditure, public spending, fiscal institutions

The international community has committed to scaling up aid and improving aid delivery to low-income countries to help them meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The March 2002 Monterrey Consensus ca...

CHAPTER 5. Strengthening Institutions to Promote Effective Utilization of Aid

CHAPTER 5. Strengthening Institutions to Promote Effective Utilization of Aid »

Source: Fiscal Management of Scaled-Up Aid

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Fletcher , Sanjeev Gupta , Duncan Last , Gerd Schwartz , Shamsuddin Tareq , Richard Allen , and Isabell Adenauer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589067035

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, public expenditure, public spending, fiscal institutions

Ensuring efficient public expenditure calls for strengthening fiscal institutions, including PFM systems. 20 Sound and effective PFM systems are important for several reasons: (1)...

Fiscal Management of Scaled-Up Aid

Fiscal Management of Scaled-Up Aid »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Fletcher , Sanjeev Gupta , Duncan Last , Gerd Schwartz , Shamsuddin Tareq , Richard Allen , and Isabell Adenauer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 April 2008

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589067035.058

ISBN: 9781589067035

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, public expenditure, public spending, fiscal institutions

The international community has committed to scaling up aid and improving aid delivery to low-income countries to help them meet the Millennium Development Goals. Other "emerging" donors, public and private, are in...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Fiscal Management of Scaled-Up Aid

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Fletcher , Sanjeev Gupta , Duncan Last , Gerd Schwartz , Shamsuddin Tareq , Richard Allen , and Isabell Adenauer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589067035

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, public expenditure, public spending, fiscal institutions

The international community has committed to scaling up aid and improving aid delivery to low-income countries to help them meet the Millennium Development Goals. Other "emerging" donors, public and private, are in...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Fiscal Management of Scaled-Up Aid

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Fletcher , Sanjeev Gupta , Duncan Last , Gerd Schwartz , Shamsuddin Tareq , Richard Allen , and Isabell Adenauer

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 22 April 2008

ISBN: 9781589067035

Keywords: expenditure, fiscal policy, public expenditure, public spending, fiscal institutions

The international community has committed to scaling up aid and improving aid delivery to low-income countries to help them meet the Millennium Development Goals. Other "emerging" donors, public and private, are in...

Appendix 2. Additional Tables and Figures

Appendix 2. Additional Tables and Figures »

Source: Sub-Saharan Africa : Forging New Trade Links with Asia

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Kevin Carey , and Ulrich Jacoby

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 October 2007

ISBN: 9781589066670

Keywords: Export diversification, Trade policy, trade flows, total exports, export shares, trade patterns, rules of origin

Table A1. Export Shares of Major Product Categories, 1995 and 2005 (In percent, ranked by 2005 shares)...

Appendix 1. Data Source and Notes

Appendix 1. Data Source and Notes »

Source: Sub-Saharan Africa : Forging New Trade Links with Asia

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Kevin Carey , and Ulrich Jacoby

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 October 2007

ISBN: 9781589066670

Keywords: Export diversification, Trade policy, trade flows, total exports, export shares, trade patterns, rules of origin

The analysis uses UN Comtrade data on sub-Saharan African merchandise (physical goods) exports, as reflected in imports to the reporting country under Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) revis...

Chapter 3. Benchmarking Sub-Saharan African Trade Performance

Chapter 3. Benchmarking Sub-Saharan African Trade Performance »

Source: Sub-Saharan Africa : Forging New Trade Links with Asia

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Kevin Carey , and Ulrich Jacoby

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 October 2007

ISBN: 9781589066670

Keywords: Export diversification, Trade policy, trade flows, total exports, export shares, trade patterns, rules of origin

Many studies have investigated whether regions or countries undertrade or overtrade relative to a benchmark model of trade flows. 18 Gravity models are commonly used for setting t...

Chapter 2: Evolution of Sub-Saharan African Trade Patterns through 2005

Chapter 2: Evolution of Sub-Saharan African Trade Patterns through 2005 »

Source: Sub-Saharan Africa : Forging New Trade Links with Asia

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Kevin Carey , and Ulrich Jacoby

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 October 2007

ISBN: 9781589066670

Keywords: Export diversification, Trade policy, trade flows, total exports, export shares, trade patterns, rules of origin

Trade Patterns by Destination The share of sub-Saharan Africa’s exports to developing countries has more than doubled since 1990. As Asia industrializes, its demand for natural resou...

Chapter 4. Making Trade an Engine of Development

Chapter 4. Making Trade an Engine of Development »

Source: Sub-Saharan Africa : Forging New Trade Links with Asia

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Kevin Carey , and Ulrich Jacoby

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 October 2007

ISBN: 9781589066670

Keywords: Export diversification, Trade policy, trade flows, total exports, export shares, trade patterns, rules of origin

Evidence indicates that sub-Saharan Africa is performing below its export potential. Its export growth derives both from fuels and manufactures, but manufactures are confined to a few resource-based products...

Chapter 1. Overview

Chapter 1. Overview »

Source: Sub-Saharan Africa : Forging New Trade Links with Asia

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Kevin Carey , and Ulrich Jacoby

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 October 2007

ISBN: 9781589066670

Keywords: Export diversification, Trade policy, trade flows, total exports, export shares, trade patterns, rules of origin

Sub-Saharan Africa’s share in global trade (exports plus imports) has declined from about 4 percent in 1970 to about 2 percent at present (Figure 1). This long-term decline is traceable to such factors as ma...

Sub-Saharan Africa
			: Forging New Trade Links with Asia

Sub-Saharan Africa : Forging New Trade Links with Asia »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Kevin Carey , and Ulrich Jacoby

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 October 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066670.058

ISBN: 9781589066670

Keywords: Export diversification, Trade policy, trade flows, total exports, export shares, trade patterns, rules of origin

What is the impact on trade in sub-Saharan Africa of the recent rapid growth in China and other Asian countries, and the associated commodity price boom? This paper looks at how trading patterns (both destinations...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Sub-Saharan Africa : Forging New Trade Links with Asia

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Kevin Carey , and Ulrich Jacoby

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 October 2007

ISBN: 9781589066670

Keywords: Export diversification, Trade policy, trade flows, total exports, export shares, trade patterns, rules of origin

What is the impact on trade in sub-Saharan Africa of the recent rapid growth in China and other Asian countries, and the associated commodity price boom? This paper looks at how trading patterns (both destinations...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Sub-Saharan Africa : Forging New Trade Links with Asia

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Kevin Carey , and Ulrich Jacoby

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 16 October 2007

ISBN: 9781589066670

Keywords: Export diversification, Trade policy, trade flows, total exports, export shares, trade patterns, rules of origin

What is the impact on trade in sub-Saharan Africa of the recent rapid growth in China and other Asian countries, and the associated commodity price boom? This paper looks at how trading patterns (both destinations...

CHAPTER 5: Conceptual Framework for Classifying Health Systems

CHAPTER 5: Conceptual Framework for Classifying Health Systems »

Source: What Macroeconomists Should Know about Health Care Policy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Peter Heller , and William Hsiao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 April 2007

ISBN: 9781589066182

Keywords: Health care, public health, health services, health policy, health expenditure

Like other socioeconomic systems, a health system is structured by state action or inaction to serve certain social purposes. A state makes conscious decisions in structuring the system to achieve certain ob...

CHAPTER 3: Facts and Myths about Health Care and the Health Sector

CHAPTER 3: Facts and Myths about Health Care and the Health Sector »

Source: What Macroeconomists Should Know about Health Care Policy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Peter Heller , and William Hsiao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 April 2007

ISBN: 9781589066182

Keywords: Health care, public health, health services, health policy, health expenditure

A. Basic Facts about the Health Sector Certain basic facts about the health sector and health care are not widely known. This section explains what macroeconomists should know on thi...

CHAPTER 4: Health Policy Challenges and Issues Confronting Nations

CHAPTER 4: Health Policy Challenges and Issues Confronting Nations »

Source: What Macroeconomists Should Know about Health Care Policy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Peter Heller , and William Hsiao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 April 2007

ISBN: 9781589066182

Keywords: Health care, public health, health services, health policy, health expenditure

Although specific issues confront nations at different stages of development, several issues confront all nations throughout the world. We first present the universal issues, then the ones for each stage....

CHAPTER 1: Introduction and Guide to the Primer

CHAPTER 1: Introduction and Guide to the Primer »

Source: What Macroeconomists Should Know about Health Care Policy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Peter Heller , and William Hsiao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 April 2007

ISBN: 9781589066182

Keywords: Health care, public health, health services, health policy, health expenditure

A. The Need for a Guide for Macroeconomists Whether working on a low-income country or an advanced economy, it is important that macroeconomists be aware of issues in health economic...

CHAPTER 6: Stages of Health System Development and Health System Performance

CHAPTER 6: Stages of Health System Development and Health System Performance »

Source: What Macroeconomists Should Know about Health Care Policy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Peter Heller , and William Hsiao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 April 2007

ISBN: 9781589066182

Keywords: Health care, public health, health services, health policy, health expenditure

A. Characterizing Different Stages of Health System Development This chapter presents an analytical framework to help macroeconomists understand health systems and assess health poli...

CHAPTER 7: What Role Can Macroeconomists Play?

CHAPTER 7: What Role Can Macroeconomists Play? »

Source: What Macroeconomists Should Know about Health Care Policy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Peter Heller , and William Hsiao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 April 2007

ISBN: 9781589066182

Keywords: Health care, public health, health services, health policy, health expenditure

A. Low- and Lower-Middle-Income Countries The CMH was initiated by the WHO as a means of providing an evidence base for economic and financial policymakers in low-income countries on...

CHAPTER 2: Why Is It Critical for Macroeconomists to Understand Health Issues?

CHAPTER 2: Why Is It Critical for Macroeconomists to Understand Health Issues? »

Source: What Macroeconomists Should Know about Health Care Policy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Peter Heller , and William Hsiao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 April 2007

ISBN: 9781589066182

Keywords: Health care, public health, health services, health policy, health expenditure

As a general rule, issues of health care policy have not generally been seen as the domain of macroeconomists. Only in recent years, with the report of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Commission on Mac...

What Macroeconomists Should Know about Health Care Policy

What Macroeconomists Should Know about Health Care Policy »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Peter Heller , and William Hsiao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 April 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589066182.058

ISBN: 9781589066182

Keywords: Health care, public health, health services, health policy, health expenditure

This primer explains why macroeconomists need to be concerned with issues of health policy and elaborates the essential information that a macroeconomist should know in providing inputs to discussions on health sec...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: What Macroeconomists Should Know about Health Care Policy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Peter Heller , and William Hsiao

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 27 April 2007

ISBN: 9781589066182

Keywords: Health care, public health, health services, health policy, health expenditure

This primer explains why macroeconomists need to be concerned with issues of health policy and elaborates the essential information that a macroeconomist should know in providing inputs to discussions on health sec...

Appendix 1: Data Sources and Methodology

Appendix 1: Data Sources and Methodology »

Source: Islamic Republic of Iran : Managing the Transition to a Market Economy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

ISBN: 9781589064416

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, reer

The source for real GDP and investment data for Iran is the latest Central Bank of Iran database; for the rest of the countries, the source is the International Financial Statistics database. The source for...

Appendix 2: Productivity Growth in Iran and Its Trading Partner Countries, 1993–2002

Appendix 2: Productivity Growth in Iran and Its Trading Partner Countries, 1993–2002 »

Source: Islamic Republic of Iran : Managing the Transition to a Market Economy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

ISBN: 9781589064416

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, reer

Productivity Growth in Iran and its Trading Partner Countries, 1993–2002 (Average annual percentage change, unless otherwise indicated)...

Appendix 4: Subsidies

Appendix 4: Subsidies »

Source: Islamic Republic of Iran : Managing the Transition to a Market Economy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

ISBN: 9781589064416

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, reer

Explicit subsidies include budgetary subsidies to households for essential commodities, such as wheat, rice, oil, sugar, milk, and cheese; imports of medical equipment and pharmaceuticals; fertilizers; and s...

Appendix 3: The Oil Stabilization Fund

Appendix 3: The Oil Stabilization Fund »

Source: Islamic Republic of Iran : Managing the Transition to a Market Economy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

ISBN: 9781589064416

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, reer

The Oil Stabilization Fund (OSF) was established in December 2000 with the objective of insulating the budget from fluctuations in oil prices. The fund was established as a foreign currency account at the ce...

Chapter 4: Approaches to Assessing the Exchange Rate Level

Chapter 4: Approaches to Assessing the Exchange Rate Level »

Source: Islamic Republic of Iran : Managing the Transition to a Market Economy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

ISBN: 9781589064416

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, reer

Following a long period of multiple and unstable exchange rates in Iran, the exchange rate was successfully unified in March 2002. Since then, Iran has adopted a managed float exchange rate regime and elimin...

Chapter 1: Economic Growth

Chapter 1: Economic Growth »

Source: Islamic Republic of Iran : Managing the Transition to a Market Economy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

ISBN: 9781589064416

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, reer

Iran faces the challenge of increasing its growth rate to reduce unemployment and improve the living standards of its population over the medium term. Growth performance in recent years (6 percent during 200...

Chapter 5: Issues in Medium-Term Management of Oil Resources

Chapter 5: Issues in Medium-Term Management of Oil Resources »

Source: Islamic Republic of Iran : Managing the Transition to a Market Economy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

ISBN: 9781589064416

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, reer

Under the Third Five-Year Development Plan (2000/01–2004/05), Iran introduced a number of important fiscal reforms aimed at reducing the dependency of public finances on oil revenue and containing expenditur...

Chapter 3: Moving toward a Market-Based Monetary Policy

Chapter 3: Moving toward a Market-Based Monetary Policy »

Source: Islamic Republic of Iran : Managing the Transition to a Market Economy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

ISBN: 9781589064416

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, reer

Reform of the monetary policy framework in Iran is needed in connection with the efforts to liberalize the financial system (Chapter 2) and the authorities’ objective of reducing the inflation rate to single...

Chapter 2: The Financial Sector - Issues and Reforms

Chapter 2: The Financial Sector - Issues and Reforms »

Source: Islamic Republic of Iran : Managing the Transition to a Market Economy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

ISBN: 9781589064416

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, reer

The Iranian financial system has evolved through a number of stages since the 1979 revolution. After widespread nationalization in the 1980s, reform of the financial system in the 1990s and 2000s focused on...

Islamic Republic of Iran
			: Managing the Transition to a Market Economy

Islamic Republic of Iran : Managing the Transition to a Market Economy »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064416.058

ISBN: 9781589064416

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, reer

Iran has received much attention from a geopolitical and regional standpoint, but its economic challenges have not attracted a similar degree of interest. With a population of 69 million, considerable hydrocarbon r...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Islamic Republic of Iran : Managing the Transition to a Market Economy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

ISBN: 9781589064416

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, reer

Iran has received much attention from a geopolitical and regional standpoint, but its economic challenges have not attracted a similar degree of interest. With a population of 69 million, considerable hydrocarbon r...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Islamic Republic of Iran : Managing the Transition to a Market Economy

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2007

ISBN: 9781589064416

Keywords: exchange rate, monetary policy, central bank, inflation, reer

Iran has received much attention from a geopolitical and regional standpoint, but its economic challenges have not attracted a similar degree of interest. With a population of 69 million, considerable hydrocarbon r...

Appendice 1. La relation entre les flux d’aide et les taux de change en Afrique subsaharienne

Appendice 1. La relation entre les flux d’aide et les taux de change en Afrique subsaharienne »

Source: Les défis macroéconomiques de l'expansion de l'aide à l'Afrique : Repères à l'intention des praticiens

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Robert Powell , and Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2006

Language: French

ISBN: 9781589065727

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank, debt sustainability, exchange rate appreciation, external debt, exchange rates, debt relief

Flux d’aide et taux de change réels Les tentatives visant à mesurer la relation entre les flux d’aide et le taux de change réel en Afrique subsaharienne remontent aux années 80 (tabl...

Appendice 2. Retombées macroéconomiques de l’aide

Appendice 2. Retombées macroéconomiques de l’aide »

Source: Les défis macroéconomiques de l'expansion de l'aide à l'Afrique : Repères à l'intention des praticiens

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Robert Powell , and Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2006

Language: French

ISBN: 9781589065727

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank, debt sustainability, exchange rate appreciation, external debt, exchange rates, debt relief

Tableau A.2.1. Transferts officiels nets aux pays de l’Afrique subsaharienne (En pourcentage du PIB)...

2. Gérer le taux de change réel

2. Gérer le taux de change réel »

Source: Les défis macroéconomiques de l'expansion de l'aide à l'Afrique : Repères à l'intention des praticiens

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Robert Powell , and Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2006

Language: French

ISBN: 9781589065727

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank, debt sustainability, exchange rate appreciation, external debt, exchange rates, debt relief

2.1. Absorber et dépenser les flux d’aide Un des buts essentiels de l’analyse des conséquences macroéconomiques de l’expansion des transferts de ressources en faveur de l’Afrique est...

1. Les effets macroéconomiques de l’expansion de l’aide

1. Les effets macroéconomiques de l’expansion de l’aide »

Source: Les défis macroéconomiques de l'expansion de l'aide à l'Afrique : Repères à l'intention des praticiens

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Robert Powell , and Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2006

Language: French

ISBN: 9781589065727

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank, debt sustainability, exchange rate appreciation, external debt, exchange rates, debt relief

Le présent manuel recense les défis macroéconomiques auxquels les pays à faible revenu risquent d’être confrontés s’ils commencent à recevoir une aide publique au développement (APD) nettement plus abondante...

Les défis macroéconomiques de l'expansion de l'aide à l'Afrique
			: Repères à l'intention des praticiens

Les défis macroéconomiques de l'expansion de l'aide à l'Afrique : Repères à l'intention des praticiens »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Robert Powell , and Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2006

Language: French

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065727.058

ISBN: 9781589065727

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank, debt sustainability, exchange rate appreciation, external debt, exchange rates, debt relief

Over the next decade, African countries are expected to be the largest beneficiaries of increased donor aid, which is intended to improve their prospects of achieving the Millennium Development Goals. This handbook...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Les défis macroéconomiques de l'expansion de l'aide à l'Afrique : Repères à l'intention des praticiens

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Robert Powell , and Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2006

Language: French

ISBN: 9781589065727

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank, debt sustainability, exchange rate appreciation, external debt, exchange rates, debt relief

Over the next decade, African countries are expected to be the largest beneficiaries of increased donor aid, which is intended to improve their prospects of achieving the Millennium Development Goals. This handbook...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Les défis macroéconomiques de l'expansion de l'aide à l'Afrique : Repères à l'intention des praticiens

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Robert Powell , and Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2006

Language: French

ISBN: 9781589065727

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank, debt sustainability, exchange rate appreciation, external debt, exchange rates, debt relief

Over the next decade, African countries are expected to be the largest beneficiaries of increased donor aid, which is intended to improve their prospects of achieving the Millennium Development Goals. This handbook...

8. Maintenir la viabilité de l’endettement

8. Maintenir la viabilité de l’endettement »

Source: Les défis macroéconomiques de l'expansion de l'aide à l'Afrique : Repères à l'intention des praticiens

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Robert Powell , and Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2006

Language: French

ISBN: 9781589065727

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank, debt sustainability, exchange rate appreciation, external debt, exchange rates, debt relief

Tous les scénarios d’expansion de l’aide doivent être compatibles avec la viabilité de la dette publique et de la dette extérieure. Le surcroît d’aide peut avoir des répercussions non négligeables sur des év...

4. Mobiliser des recettes intérieures suffisantes

4. Mobiliser des recettes intérieures suffisantes »

Source: Les défis macroéconomiques de l'expansion de l'aide à l'Afrique : Repères à l'intention des praticiens

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Robert Powell , and Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2006

Language: French

ISBN: 9781589065727

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank, debt sustainability, exchange rate appreciation, external debt, exchange rates, debt relief

Tout scénario d’expansion de l’aide doit tenir compte des effets possibles de l’aide sur les recettes. L’ensemble des mesures d’accompagnement doit mettre l’accent sur la nécessité de maintenir ou de renforc...

5. Prévoir l’incidence de l’augmentation de l’aide sur la croissance économique

5. Prévoir l’incidence de l’augmentation de l’aide sur la croissance économique »

Source: Les défis macroéconomiques de l'expansion de l'aide à l'Afrique : Repères à l'intention des praticiens

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Robert Powell , and Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2006

Language: French

ISBN: 9781589065727

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank, debt sustainability, exchange rate appreciation, external debt, exchange rates, debt relief

5.1. La relation entre aide et croissance Le débat sur l’efficacité de l’aide en tant que stimulant de la croissance est vieux de plusieurs années et, pourtant, une grande incertitud...

6. Relever d’autres défis budgétaires

6. Relever d’autres défis budgétaires »

Source: Les défis macroéconomiques de l'expansion de l'aide à l'Afrique : Repères à l'intention des praticiens

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Robert Powell , and Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2006

Language: French

ISBN: 9781589065727

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank, debt sustainability, exchange rate appreciation, external debt, exchange rates, debt relief

La politique budgétaire peut devenir plus compliquée dans un contexte d’abondance de l’aide (Heller, 2005), et la présente section se penche sur un certain nombre d’aspects budgétaires qui doivent être pris...

7. Renforcer la gouvernance

7. Renforcer la gouvernance »

Source: Les défis macroéconomiques de l'expansion de l'aide à l'Afrique : Repères à l'intention des praticiens

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Robert Powell , and Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2006

Language: French

ISBN: 9781589065727

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank, debt sustainability, exchange rate appreciation, external debt, exchange rates, debt relief

Il est de plus en plus largement admis qu’une bonne gouvernance est essentielle si l’on veut que les flux d’aide accrus soient efficaces pour promouvoir la croissance et réduire la pauvreté 25...

9. Résumé: cinq lignes directrices essentielles

9. Résumé: cinq lignes directrices essentielles »

Source: Les défis macroéconomiques de l'expansion de l'aide à l'Afrique : Repères à l'intention des praticiens

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Robert Powell , and Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2006

Language: French

ISBN: 9781589065727

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank, debt sustainability, exchange rate appreciation, external debt, exchange rates, debt relief

Les scénarios d’expansion de l’aide peuvent être utilisés pour illustrer les répercussions potentielles, sur un pays, d’une forte augmentation de l’aide extérieure et peuvent contribuer à déterminer les mesu...

3. Utiliser la politique monétaire pour la stérilisation et la gestion de l’inflation

3. Utiliser la politique monétaire pour la stérilisation et la gestion de l’inflation »

Source: Les défis macroéconomiques de l'expansion de l'aide à l'Afrique : Repères à l'intention des praticiens

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Sanjeev Gupta , Robert Powell , and Yongzheng Yang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 03 October 2006

Language: French

ISBN: 9781589065727

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank, debt sustainability, exchange rate appreciation, external debt, exchange rates, debt relief

3.1. Politiques possibles de stérilisation Si les autorités monétaires craignent l’incidence sur les liquidités des augmentations de dépenses induites par l’aide, elles peuvent stéri...

APPENDIX 3. Alternative Approaches to Accounting for Risk Transfer

APPENDIX 3. Alternative Approaches to Accounting for Risk Transfer »

Source: Public-Private Partnerships, Government Guarantees, and Fiscal Risk

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): M. Cangiano , Barry Anderson , Max Alier , Murray Petrie , and Richard Hemming

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 April 2006

ISBN: 9781589064935

Keywords: Public investment, Privatization, contingent liabilities, accounting standards, debt sustainability

When PPPs result in limited risk transfer to the government, Eurostat and a number of countries classify PPP assets as government assets. Although this is not the ideal way to proce...

APPENDIX 1. Country Experiences with PPPs

APPENDIX 1. Country Experiences with PPPs »

Source: Public-Private Partnerships, Government Guarantees, and Fiscal Risk

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): M. Cangiano , Barry Anderson , Max Alier , Murray Petrie , and Richard Hemming

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 April 2006

ISBN: 9781589064935

Keywords: Public investment, Privatization, contingent liabilities, accounting standards, debt sustainability

This appendix provides an overview of experiences with PPPs in Chile, Ireland, South Africa, and the United Kingdom. Chile 79...

APPENDIX 5. International Accounting and Reporting Standards for Contingent Liabilities

APPENDIX 5. International Accounting and Reporting Standards for Contingent Liabilities »

Source: Public-Private Partnerships, Government Guarantees, and Fiscal Risk

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): M. Cangiano , Barry Anderson , Max Alier , Murray Petrie , and Richard Hemming

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 April 2006

ISBN: 9781589064935

Keywords: Public investment, Privatization, contingent liabilities, accounting standards, debt sustainability

International Accounting Standards International accounting standards specify the treatment of guarantees and other contingent liabilities for governm...

APPENDIX 4. Modeling and Estimating the Value of Government Guarantees in Chile

APPENDIX 4. Modeling and Estimating the Value of Government Guarantees in Chile »

Source: Public-Private Partnerships, Government Guarantees, and Fiscal Risk

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): M. Cangiano , Barry Anderson , Max Alier , Murray Petrie , and Richard Hemming

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 April 2006

ISBN: 9781589064935

Keywords: Public investment, Privatization, contingent liabilities, accounting standards, debt sustainability

This appendix outlines the analytical approaches to modeling and estimating guarantees used in Chile and reports the results. The World Bank has provided technical assistance to the...

APPENDIX 2. The Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001 Analytical Framework

APPENDIX 2. The Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001 Analytical Framework »

Source: Public-Private Partnerships, Government Guarantees, and Fiscal Risk

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): M. Cangiano , Barry Anderson , Max Alier , Murray Petrie , and Richard Hemming

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 April 2006

ISBN: 9781589064935

Keywords: Public investment, Privatization, contingent liabilities, accounting standards, debt sustainability

The GFSM 2001 analytical framework is a set of well-defined relationships that formally integrate flows and stocks. More specifically, the government’s opening and closing balance s...

Chapter 2. Government Guarantees and Fiscal Risk

Chapter 2. Government Guarantees and Fiscal Risk »

Source: Public-Private Partnerships, Government Guarantees, and Fiscal Risk

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): M. Cangiano , Barry Anderson , Max Alier , Murray Petrie , and Richard Hemming

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 April 2006

ISBN: 9781589064935

Keywords: Public investment, Privatization, contingent liabilities, accounting standards, debt sustainability

PPPs often involve the use of government guarantees, which are a form of government intervention intended to reduce the financial costs of risks faced by the private sector and/or by other public sector enti...

Chapter 3. PPPs, Guarantees, and Debt Sustainability

Chapter 3. PPPs, Guarantees, and Debt Sustainability »

Source: Public-Private Partnerships, Government Guarantees, and Fiscal Risk

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): M. Cangiano , Barry Anderson , Max Alier , Murray Petrie , and Richard Hemming

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 April 2006

ISBN: 9781589064935

Keywords: Public investment, Privatization, contingent liabilities, accounting standards, debt sustainability

This chapter looks at the consequences of PPPs and guarantees for debt sustainability, focusing on the appropriate approach to debt sustainability analysis and the uncertainty created by guarantees....

Chapter 1. Public-Private Partnerships

Chapter 1. Public-Private Partnerships »

Source: Public-Private Partnerships, Government Guarantees, and Fiscal Risk

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): M. Cangiano , Barry Anderson , Max Alier , Murray Petrie , and Richard Hemming

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 April 2006

ISBN: 9781589064935

Keywords: Public investment, Privatization, contingent liabilities, accounting standards, debt sustainability

There is no clear agreement on what does and what does not constitute a PPP. A PPP has been defined as “the transfer to the private sector of investment projects that traditionally have been executed or fina...

Chapter 4. Summary and Conclusions

Chapter 4. Summary and Conclusions »

Source: Public-Private Partnerships, Government Guarantees, and Fiscal Risk

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): M. Cangiano , Barry Anderson , Max Alier , Murray Petrie , and Richard Hemming

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 April 2006

ISBN: 9781589064935

Keywords: Public investment, Privatization, contingent liabilities, accounting standards, debt sustainability

PPPs involve private sector supply of infrastructure assets and services that have traditionally been provided by the government. An infusion of private capital and management can ease fiscal constraints on...

Public-Private Partnerships, Government Guarantees, and Fiscal Risk

Public-Private Partnerships, Government Guarantees, and Fiscal Risk »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): M. Cangiano , Barry Anderson , Max Alier , Murray Petrie , and Richard Hemming

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 April 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064935.058

ISBN: 9781589064935

Keywords: Public investment, Privatization, contingent liabilities, accounting standards, debt sustainability

Public-private partnerships (PPPs) refer to arrangements under which the private sector supplies infrastructure assets and infrastructure-based services that traditionally have been provided by the government. PPPs...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Public-Private Partnerships, Government Guarantees, and Fiscal Risk

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): M. Cangiano , Barry Anderson , Max Alier , Murray Petrie , and Richard Hemming

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 April 2006

ISBN: 9781589064935

Keywords: Public investment, Privatization, contingent liabilities, accounting standards, debt sustainability

Public-private partnerships (PPPs) refer to arrangements under which the private sector supplies infrastructure assets and infrastructure-based services that traditionally have been provided by the government. PPPs...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Public-Private Partnerships, Government Guarantees, and Fiscal Risk

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): M. Cangiano , Barry Anderson , Max Alier , Murray Petrie , and Richard Hemming

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 April 2006

ISBN: 9781589064935

Keywords: Public investment, Privatization, contingent liabilities, accounting standards, debt sustainability

Public-private partnerships (PPPs) refer to arrangements under which the private sector supplies infrastructure assets and infrastructure-based services that traditionally have been provided by the government. PPPs...

Appendix 2. The Macroeconomics of Aid

Appendix 2. The Macroeconomics of Aid »

Source: Macroeconomic Challenges of Scaling Up Aid to Africa : A Checklist for Practitioners

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang , Robert Powell , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2006

ISBN: 9781589065055

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank

Appendix Table A.2.1 Official Net Transfers to SSA Countries (In percent of GDP)...

Appendix 1. The Relationship between Aid Flows and Exchange Rates in Sub-Saharan Africa

Appendix 1. The Relationship between Aid Flows and Exchange Rates in Sub-Saharan Africa »

Source: Macroeconomic Challenges of Scaling Up Aid to Africa : A Checklist for Practitioners

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang , Robert Powell , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2006

ISBN: 9781589065055

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank

Aid Flows and the Real Exchange Rate Attempts to measure the relationship between aid flows and the real exchange rate in SSA date back to the early 1980s (Appendix Table A.2.2)....

Macroeconomic Challenges of Scaling Up Aid to Africa
			: A Checklist for Practitioners

Macroeconomic Challenges of Scaling Up Aid to Africa : A Checklist for Practitioners »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang , Robert Powell , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589065055.058

ISBN: 9781589065055

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank

Over the next decade, African countries are expected to be the largest beneficiaries of increased donor aid, which is intended to improve their prospects for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. This handboo...

Back Matter

Back Matter »

Source: Macroeconomic Challenges of Scaling Up Aid to Africa : A Checklist for Practitioners

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang , Robert Powell , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2006

ISBN: 9781589065055

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank

Over the next decade, African countries are expected to be the largest beneficiaries of increased donor aid, which is intended to improve their prospects for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. This handboo...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Macroeconomic Challenges of Scaling Up Aid to Africa : A Checklist for Practitioners

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang , Robert Powell , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2006

ISBN: 9781589065055

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank

Over the next decade, African countries are expected to be the largest beneficiaries of increased donor aid, which is intended to improve their prospects for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. This handboo...

8. Maintaining Debt Sustainability

8. Maintaining Debt Sustainability »

Source: Macroeconomic Challenges of Scaling Up Aid to Africa : A Checklist for Practitioners

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang , Robert Powell , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2006

ISBN: 9781589065055

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank

All scaling-up scenarios must be consistent with maintaining public and external debt sustainability. Increased aid can have a significant impact on macroeconomic developments that are fundamental to debt dy...

2. Managing the Real Exchange Rate

2. Managing the Real Exchange Rate »

Source: Macroeconomic Challenges of Scaling Up Aid to Africa : A Checklist for Practitioners

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang , Robert Powell , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2006

ISBN: 9781589065055

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank

2.1. Absorbing and Spending Aid Flows A key issue in assessing the macroeconomic implications of scaling up official resource transfers to Africa is the potential impact on the real...

6. Meeting Other Fiscal Challenges

6. Meeting Other Fiscal Challenges »

Source: Macroeconomic Challenges of Scaling Up Aid to Africa : A Checklist for Practitioners

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang , Robert Powell , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2006

ISBN: 9781589065055

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank

Fiscal policy can become more complicated in a high-aid environment (Heller,2005), and this section considers a number of fiscal issues that may need to be considered in a scaling-up scenario....

4. Mobilizing Adequate Domestic Revenues

4. Mobilizing Adequate Domestic Revenues »

Source: Macroeconomic Challenges of Scaling Up Aid to Africa : A Checklist for Practitioners

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang , Robert Powell , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2006

ISBN: 9781589065055

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank

Any scaling-up scenario needs to take into account the possible effects of aid on revenues. The associated policy package should stress the need to maintain or strengthen revenues during the period of higher...

5. Projecting the Impact of Increased Aid on Economic Growth

5. Projecting the Impact of Increased Aid on Economic Growth »

Source: Macroeconomic Challenges of Scaling Up Aid to Africa : A Checklist for Practitioners

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang , Robert Powell , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2006

ISBN: 9781589065055

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank

5.1. The Relationship between Aid and Growth The debate about the effectiveness of aid in stimulating growth goes back many years, yet there remains considerable uncertainty about th...

7. Strengthening Governance

7. Strengthening Governance »

Source: Macroeconomic Challenges of Scaling Up Aid to Africa : A Checklist for Practitioners

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang , Robert Powell , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2006

ISBN: 9781589065055

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank

There is a growing consensus that good governance is essential if higher aid flows are to be effective in promoting growth and reducing poverty. 25 Major donors have made this poi...

9. Summary: Five Primary Guidelines

9. Summary: Five Primary Guidelines »

Source: Macroeconomic Challenges of Scaling Up Aid to Africa : A Checklist for Practitioners

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang , Robert Powell , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2006

ISBN: 9781589065055

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank

Scaling-up scenarios can be used to illustrate the potential impact on a country of a large increase in external aid and can help identify key measures and policies that will allow the country to absorb and...

1. The Macroeconomic Effects of Scaling Up Aid

1. The Macroeconomic Effects of Scaling Up Aid »

Source: Macroeconomic Challenges of Scaling Up Aid to Africa : A Checklist for Practitioners

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang , Robert Powell , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2006

ISBN: 9781589065055

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank

This handbook provides a checklist of the macroeconomic challenges that low-income countries are likely to face if they begin to receive significantly higher official development assistance (ODA) than in the...

3. Using Monetary Policy for Sterilization and Inflation Management

3. Using Monetary Policy for Sterilization and Inflation Management »

Source: Macroeconomic Challenges of Scaling Up Aid to Africa : A Checklist for Practitioners

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Yongzheng Yang , Robert Powell , and Sanjeev Gupta

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 March 2006

ISBN: 9781589065055

Keywords: exchange rate, real exchange rate, foreign exchange, foreign aid, central bank

3.1. Policy Options for Sterilization If the monetary authorities are concerned with the liquidity impact of increases in aid-induced spending, they can sterilize the liquidity injec...

Appendix

Appendix »

Source: Sustaining and Accelerating Pro-Poor Growth in Africa

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Carey , Sanjeev Gupta , and Catherine Pattillo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 February 2006

ISBN: 9781589064942

Keywords: Economic growth, Poverty, pro-poor growth, pro-poor, growth rates, tfp, real gdp

Table A1. Subgroups of Countries Oil-Producing Cou...

CHAPTER 6. Conclusion

CHAPTER 6. Conclusion »

Source: Sustaining and Accelerating Pro-Poor Growth in Africa

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Carey , Sanjeev Gupta , and Catherine Pattillo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 February 2006

ISBN: 9781589064942

Keywords: Economic growth, Poverty, pro-poor growth, pro-poor, growth rates, tfp, real gdp

Improvements in macroeconomic policies contributed strongly to the recovery of the fastest-growing economies of the 1990s and were strongest for countries with on-track IMF-supported programs. More favorable...

CHAPTER 2. Explaining Differences in Growth Performance

CHAPTER 2. Explaining Differences in Growth Performance »

Source: Sustaining and Accelerating Pro-Poor Growth in Africa

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Carey , Sanjeev Gupta , and Catherine Pattillo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 February 2006

ISBN: 9781589064942

Keywords: Economic growth, Poverty, pro-poor growth, pro-poor, growth rates, tfp, real gdp

A. Understanding the Post-1995 Improvement in Growth The stylized facts of growth during 1960–2003 are sobering. For the region as a whole, real GDP grew at an average rate of 3.7 pe...

CHAPTER 3. Growth Accelerations

CHAPTER 3. Growth Accelerations »

Source: Sustaining and Accelerating Pro-Poor Growth in Africa

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Carey , Sanjeev Gupta , and Catherine Pattillo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 February 2006

ISBN: 9781589064942

Keywords: Economic growth, Poverty, pro-poor growth, pro-poor, growth rates, tfp, real gdp

Very large and sustained increases in growth rates are necessary if sub-Saharan Africa is to have a realistic prospect of halving income poverty by the year 2015. To meet the poverty Millennium Development G...

CHAPTER 1. Introduction

CHAPTER 1. Introduction »

Source: Sustaining and Accelerating Pro-Poor Growth in Africa

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Carey , Sanjeev Gupta , and Catherine Pattillo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 February 2006

ISBN: 9781589064942

Keywords: Economic growth, Poverty, pro-poor growth, pro-poor, growth rates, tfp, real gdp

Are improvements in growth in sub-Saharan Africa since the mid-1990s sustainable? What types of growth strategies contribute the most to reducing poverty? This paper examines these questions in four stages....

CHAPTER 4. Policies, Institutions, and Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

CHAPTER 4. Policies, Institutions, and Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa »

Source: Sustaining and Accelerating Pro-Poor Growth in Africa

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Carey , Sanjeev Gupta , and Catherine Pattillo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 February 2006

ISBN: 9781589064942

Keywords: Economic growth, Poverty, pro-poor growth, pro-poor, growth rates, tfp, real gdp

Some additional examination is warranted of selected policies that the growth acceleration analysis could not probe deeply. Although many countries’ fiscal policies have improved, they still face major chall...

CHAPTER 5. Pro-Poor Growth

CHAPTER 5. Pro-Poor Growth »

Source: Sustaining and Accelerating Pro-Poor Growth in Africa

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Carey , Sanjeev Gupta , and Catherine Pattillo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 February 2006

ISBN: 9781589064942

Keywords: Economic growth, Poverty, pro-poor growth, pro-poor, growth rates, tfp, real gdp

Policymakers are justifiably concerned about the relationship between economic growth and the distribution of income and, in particular, about the impact of growth on the incomes of individuals living below...

Sustaining and Accelerating Pro-Poor Growth in Africa

Sustaining and Accelerating Pro-Poor Growth in Africa »

Series: IMF Special Issues

Author(s): Kevin Carey , Sanjeev Gupta , and Catherine Pattillo

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 February 2006

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781589064942.058

ISBN: 9781589064942

Keywords: Economic growth, Poverty, pro-poor growth, pro-poor, growth rates, tfp, real gdp

Growth in sub-Saharan Africa has recently shown signs of improvement, but is still short of levels needed to attain the Millennium Development Goals. Economists have placed increasing emphasis on understanding the...